Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

Jong Sung Kim, Patrick J Shea, Jae E. Yang, Jang Eok Kim

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

56 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Zerovalent iron (Fe0, ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl- and Br- was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br- was present in solution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)634-641
Number of pages8
JournalEnvironmental Pollution
Volume147
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2007

Fingerprint

halide
HMX
explosive
Iron
Salts
Trinitrotoluene
salt
iron
Degradation
degradation
Corrosion
corrosion
Bromides
Oxides
Chlorides
Pitting
Remediation
bromide
Passivation
Ions

Keywords

  • Halide ion
  • High explosives (HE)
  • Passivation
  • Reactivity
  • Zerovalent iron (ZVI)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pollution
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron. / Kim, Jong Sung; Shea, Patrick J; Yang, Jae E.; Kim, Jang Eok.

In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 147, No. 3, 01.06.2007, p. 634-641.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, Jong Sung ; Shea, Patrick J ; Yang, Jae E. ; Kim, Jang Eok. / Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron. In: Environmental Pollution. 2007 ; Vol. 147, No. 3. pp. 634-641.
@article{b38f7b0bed1f458c981968daa94ad3f8,
title = "Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron",
abstract = "Zerovalent iron (Fe0, ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe0 (1{\%} w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl- and Br- was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br- was present in solution.",
keywords = "Halide ion, High explosives (HE), Passivation, Reactivity, Zerovalent iron (ZVI)",
author = "Kim, {Jong Sung} and Shea, {Patrick J} and Yang, {Jae E.} and Kim, {Jang Eok}",
year = "2007",
month = "6",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.010",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "147",
pages = "634--641",
journal = "Environmental Pollution",
issn = "0269-7491",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Halide salts accelerate degradation of high explosives by zerovalent iron

AU - Kim, Jong Sung

AU - Shea, Patrick J

AU - Yang, Jae E.

AU - Kim, Jang Eok

PY - 2007/6/1

Y1 - 2007/6/1

N2 - Zerovalent iron (Fe0, ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl- and Br- was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br- was present in solution.

AB - Zerovalent iron (Fe0, ZVI) has drawn great interest as an inexpensive and effective material to promote the degradation of environmental contaminants. A focus of ZVI research is to increase degradation kinetics and overcome passivation for long-term remediation. Halide ions promote corrosion, which can increase and sustain ZVI reactivity. Adding chloride or bromide salts with Fe0 (1% w/v) greatly enhanced TNT, RDX, and HMX degradation rates in aqueous solution. Adding Cl or Br salts after 24 h also restored ZVI reactivity, resulting in complete degradation within 8 h. These observations may be attributed to removal of the passivating oxide layer and pitting corrosion of the iron. While the relative increase in degradation rate by Cl- and Br- was similar, TNT degraded faster than RDX and HMX. HMX was most difficult to remove using ZVI alone but ZVI remained effective after five HMX reseeding cycles when Br- was present in solution.

KW - Halide ion

KW - High explosives (HE)

KW - Passivation

KW - Reactivity

KW - Zerovalent iron (ZVI)

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=34247882727&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=34247882727&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.010

DO - 10.1016/j.envpol.2006.10.010

M3 - Article

C2 - 17241724

AN - SCOPUS:34247882727

VL - 147

SP - 634

EP - 641

JO - Environmental Pollution

JF - Environmental Pollution

SN - 0269-7491

IS - 3

ER -