Growth and neurotrophic factors in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders

Palsamy Periyasamy, Minglei Guo, Shilpa J Buch

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

The advent of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) has successfully controlled replication of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leading to reduced morbidity and increased longevity of infected people. Paradoxically however, as patients live longer lives, the prevalence of HIV-associated cognitive impairments has risen due to drug toxicity and its limited cART central nervous system (CNS) penetrance. Additionally, the presence of HIV proteins, which are not impacted by antiretrovirals, are a source of neuroinflammation. As a result, almost 50 % of infected individuals on effective cART exhibit various forms of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) whose mechanism(s) include deficits in calcium flux, excitotoxicity, cell signaling, oxidative stress and autophagy. Additionally, defects in the processing and functioning of neurotrophic factors such as fibroblast growth factors, brain-derived growth factor, insulin-like growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and glial cell derived neurotrophic factor have also been implicated in disruption of neuronal function. Importantly, these factors have been shown to interfere with the fundamental mechanism of apoptotic cell death, the underlying feature of HAND and other neurodegenerative diseases. Additionally, neurotrophic factors are also capable of promoting neuronal differentiation, neurogenesis and angiogenesis, thereby facilitating repair. Currently, there are no effective adjunctive treatments for disease. Thus, identifying novel neuroprotective molecules for treating such diseases is highly warranted in this field. This chapter discusses the beneficial roles of those neurotrophic and growth factors in the context of potential HIV therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationNeuroimmune Pharmacology
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Pages285-298
Number of pages14
ISBN (Electronic)9783319440224
ISBN (Print)9783319440200
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2016

Fingerprint

Nerve Growth Factors
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
HIV
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Proteins
Therapeutics
Fibroblast Growth Factors
Penetrance
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
Neurogenesis
Autophagy
Somatomedins
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions
Neuroglia
Neurodegenerative Diseases
Oxidative Stress
Cell Death
Central Nervous System
Neurocognitive Disorders
Calcium
Morbidity

Keywords

  • Brain-derived growth factor
  • Fibroblast growth factors
  • Glial cell derived neurotrophic factor
  • HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection
  • Insulin-like growth factor
  • Neurodegeneration
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Platelet-derived growth factor

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)
  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Neuroscience(all)
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

Cite this

Periyasamy, P., Guo, M., & Buch, S. J. (2016). Growth and neurotrophic factors in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. In Neuroimmune Pharmacology (pp. 285-298). Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44022-4_18

Growth and neurotrophic factors in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. / Periyasamy, Palsamy; Guo, Minglei; Buch, Shilpa J.

Neuroimmune Pharmacology. Springer International Publishing, 2016. p. 285-298.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Periyasamy, P, Guo, M & Buch, SJ 2016, Growth and neurotrophic factors in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. in Neuroimmune Pharmacology. Springer International Publishing, pp. 285-298. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44022-4_18
Periyasamy P, Guo M, Buch SJ. Growth and neurotrophic factors in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. In Neuroimmune Pharmacology. Springer International Publishing. 2016. p. 285-298 https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-44022-4_18
Periyasamy, Palsamy ; Guo, Minglei ; Buch, Shilpa J. / Growth and neurotrophic factors in HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Neuroimmune Pharmacology. Springer International Publishing, 2016. pp. 285-298
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