GRASr2 Evaluation of Aliphatic Acyclic and Alicyclic Terpenoid Tertiary Alcohols and Structurally Related Substances Used as Flavoring Ingredients

Lawrence J. Marnett, Samuel Monroe Cohen, Shoji Fukushima, Nigel J. Gooderham, Stephen S. Hecht, Ivonne M C M Rietjens, Robert L. Smith, Timothy B. Adams, Maria Bastaki, Christie L. Harman, Margaret M. Mcgowen, Sean V. Taylor

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This publication is the 1st in a series of publications by the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Assoc. summarizing the Panel's 3rd re-evaluation of Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status referred to as the GRASr2 program. In 2011, the Panel initiated a comprehensive program to re-evaluate the safety of more than 2700 flavor ingredients that have previously met the criteria for GRAS status under conditions of intended use as flavor ingredients. Elements that are fundamental to the safety evaluation of flavor ingredients include exposure, structural analogy, metabolism, pharmacokinetics, and toxicology. Flavor ingredients are evaluated individually and in the context of the available scientific information on the group of structurally related substances. Scientific data relevant to the safety evaluation of the use of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances as flavoring ingredients are evaluated. The group of aliphatic acyclic and alicyclic terpenoid tertiary alcohols and structurally related substances was reaffirmed as GRAS (GRASr2) based, in part, on their rapid absorption, metabolic detoxication, and excretion in humans and other animals; their low level of flavor use; the wide margins of safety between the conservative estimates of intake and the no-observed-adverse effect levels determined from subchronic studies and the lack of significant genotoxic and mutagenic potential.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Food Science
Volume79
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2014

Fingerprint

Terpenes
flavorings
terpenoids
ingredients
alcohols
flavor
Alcohols
Safety
No-Observed-Adverse-Effect Level
Toxicology
Publications
no observed adverse effect level
margin of safety
Pharmacokinetics
toxicology
pharmacokinetics
excretion
metabolism
extracts
animals

Keywords

  • FEMA GRAS
  • Flavoring ingredients
  • Terpene tertiary alcohols

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

GRASr2 Evaluation of Aliphatic Acyclic and Alicyclic Terpenoid Tertiary Alcohols and Structurally Related Substances Used as Flavoring Ingredients. / Marnett, Lawrence J.; Cohen, Samuel Monroe; Fukushima, Shoji; Gooderham, Nigel J.; Hecht, Stephen S.; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M; Smith, Robert L.; Adams, Timothy B.; Bastaki, Maria; Harman, Christie L.; Mcgowen, Margaret M.; Taylor, Sean V.

In: Journal of Food Science, Vol. 79, No. 4, 01.01.2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Marnett, LJ, Cohen, SM, Fukushima, S, Gooderham, NJ, Hecht, SS, Rietjens, IMCM, Smith, RL, Adams, TB, Bastaki, M, Harman, CL, Mcgowen, MM & Taylor, SV 2014, 'GRASr2 Evaluation of Aliphatic Acyclic and Alicyclic Terpenoid Tertiary Alcohols and Structurally Related Substances Used as Flavoring Ingredients', Journal of Food Science, vol. 79, no. 4. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.12407
Marnett, Lawrence J. ; Cohen, Samuel Monroe ; Fukushima, Shoji ; Gooderham, Nigel J. ; Hecht, Stephen S. ; Rietjens, Ivonne M C M ; Smith, Robert L. ; Adams, Timothy B. ; Bastaki, Maria ; Harman, Christie L. ; Mcgowen, Margaret M. ; Taylor, Sean V. / GRASr2 Evaluation of Aliphatic Acyclic and Alicyclic Terpenoid Tertiary Alcohols and Structurally Related Substances Used as Flavoring Ingredients. In: Journal of Food Science. 2014 ; Vol. 79, No. 4.
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