Graphene signal mixer for sensing applications

Norma L. Rangel, Alejandro Gimenez, Alexander Sinitskii, Jorge M. Seminario

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A multilayer graphene device performing as a chemistry-based signal mixer is shown by a theoretical-experimental approach. We find current fluctuations across a three-layer graphene cluster using a combination of density functional and Greens function theories. We suggest that these current fluctuations are due to the effect of the external bias on plasmons created from electron delocalization in graphene plates. The bias potentials affect the intrinsic behavior of the electron density corresponding to the frontier orbitals and perhaps other energetically near orbitals. The theoretical finding suggests that if the sheets of graphene show a plasmon behavior they may be used to mix signals of different frequencies. We corroborate this suggestion performing a proof-of-concept experiment on a sample of few-layer graphene by introducing two signals of different frequencies. We find experimentally that the recovered output contains the input frequencies, their sum and differences, as well as their second- and third-order harmonics, among others. Thus, plasmons between graphene layers and their high sensitivity surface make the graphene layers a mixer device able to detect the frequency differences of the input signals. Eventually these input signals could come from vibrational modes of molecules, and such a mixer would be of strong importance for sensing science and engineering at terahertz frequencies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)12128-12134
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Volume115
Issue number24
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 23 2011

Fingerprint

Graphite
Graphene
graphene
Plasmons
plasmons
orbitals
Green's function
Carrier concentration
Multilayers
suggestion
vibration mode
Green's functions
engineering
Molecules
chemistry
Electrons
harmonics
output
sensitivity
Experiments

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Energy(all)
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films

Cite this

Graphene signal mixer for sensing applications. / Rangel, Norma L.; Gimenez, Alejandro; Sinitskii, Alexander; Seminario, Jorge M.

In: Journal of Physical Chemistry C, Vol. 115, No. 24, 23.06.2011, p. 12128-12134.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rangel, NL, Gimenez, A, Sinitskii, A & Seminario, JM 2011, 'Graphene signal mixer for sensing applications', Journal of Physical Chemistry C, vol. 115, no. 24, pp. 12128-12134. https://doi.org/10.1021/jp202790b
Rangel, Norma L. ; Gimenez, Alejandro ; Sinitskii, Alexander ; Seminario, Jorge M. / Graphene signal mixer for sensing applications. In: Journal of Physical Chemistry C. 2011 ; Vol. 115, No. 24. pp. 12128-12134.
@article{fdc2762d973b4300957fe93d45046a3e,
title = "Graphene signal mixer for sensing applications",
abstract = "A multilayer graphene device performing as a chemistry-based signal mixer is shown by a theoretical-experimental approach. We find current fluctuations across a three-layer graphene cluster using a combination of density functional and Greens function theories. We suggest that these current fluctuations are due to the effect of the external bias on plasmons created from electron delocalization in graphene plates. The bias potentials affect the intrinsic behavior of the electron density corresponding to the frontier orbitals and perhaps other energetically near orbitals. The theoretical finding suggests that if the sheets of graphene show a plasmon behavior they may be used to mix signals of different frequencies. We corroborate this suggestion performing a proof-of-concept experiment on a sample of few-layer graphene by introducing two signals of different frequencies. We find experimentally that the recovered output contains the input frequencies, their sum and differences, as well as their second- and third-order harmonics, among others. Thus, plasmons between graphene layers and their high sensitivity surface make the graphene layers a mixer device able to detect the frequency differences of the input signals. Eventually these input signals could come from vibrational modes of molecules, and such a mixer would be of strong importance for sensing science and engineering at terahertz frequencies.",
author = "Rangel, {Norma L.} and Alejandro Gimenez and Alexander Sinitskii and Seminario, {Jorge M.}",
year = "2011",
month = "6",
day = "23",
doi = "10.1021/jp202790b",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "115",
pages = "12128--12134",
journal = "Journal of Physical Chemistry C",
issn = "1932-7447",
publisher = "American Chemical Society",
number = "24",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Graphene signal mixer for sensing applications

AU - Rangel, Norma L.

AU - Gimenez, Alejandro

AU - Sinitskii, Alexander

AU - Seminario, Jorge M.

PY - 2011/6/23

Y1 - 2011/6/23

N2 - A multilayer graphene device performing as a chemistry-based signal mixer is shown by a theoretical-experimental approach. We find current fluctuations across a three-layer graphene cluster using a combination of density functional and Greens function theories. We suggest that these current fluctuations are due to the effect of the external bias on plasmons created from electron delocalization in graphene plates. The bias potentials affect the intrinsic behavior of the electron density corresponding to the frontier orbitals and perhaps other energetically near orbitals. The theoretical finding suggests that if the sheets of graphene show a plasmon behavior they may be used to mix signals of different frequencies. We corroborate this suggestion performing a proof-of-concept experiment on a sample of few-layer graphene by introducing two signals of different frequencies. We find experimentally that the recovered output contains the input frequencies, their sum and differences, as well as their second- and third-order harmonics, among others. Thus, plasmons between graphene layers and their high sensitivity surface make the graphene layers a mixer device able to detect the frequency differences of the input signals. Eventually these input signals could come from vibrational modes of molecules, and such a mixer would be of strong importance for sensing science and engineering at terahertz frequencies.

AB - A multilayer graphene device performing as a chemistry-based signal mixer is shown by a theoretical-experimental approach. We find current fluctuations across a three-layer graphene cluster using a combination of density functional and Greens function theories. We suggest that these current fluctuations are due to the effect of the external bias on plasmons created from electron delocalization in graphene plates. The bias potentials affect the intrinsic behavior of the electron density corresponding to the frontier orbitals and perhaps other energetically near orbitals. The theoretical finding suggests that if the sheets of graphene show a plasmon behavior they may be used to mix signals of different frequencies. We corroborate this suggestion performing a proof-of-concept experiment on a sample of few-layer graphene by introducing two signals of different frequencies. We find experimentally that the recovered output contains the input frequencies, their sum and differences, as well as their second- and third-order harmonics, among others. Thus, plasmons between graphene layers and their high sensitivity surface make the graphene layers a mixer device able to detect the frequency differences of the input signals. Eventually these input signals could come from vibrational modes of molecules, and such a mixer would be of strong importance for sensing science and engineering at terahertz frequencies.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=79959198136&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=79959198136&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1021/jp202790b

DO - 10.1021/jp202790b

M3 - Article

VL - 115

SP - 12128

EP - 12134

JO - Journal of Physical Chemistry C

JF - Journal of Physical Chemistry C

SN - 1932-7447

IS - 24

ER -