Granulocyte-Macrophage colony stimulating factor exerts protective and immunomodulatory effects in cortical trauma

Matthew L. Kelso, Bret R. Elliott, Nicole A. Haverland, R Lee Mosley, Howard Eliot Gendelman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

15 Scopus citations


Neurodegeneration after traumatic brain injury is facilitated by innate and adaptive immunity and can be harnessed to affect brain repair. In mice subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI), we show that treatment with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) affects regulatory T cell numbers in the cervical lymph nodes coincident with decreased lesion volumes and increased cortical tissue sparing. This paralleled increases in neurofilament and diminished reactive microglial staining. Transcriptomic analysis showed that GM-CSF induces robust immune neuroprotective responses seven days following CCI. Together, these results support the therapeutic potential of GM-CSF for TBI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)162-173
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neuroimmunology
Publication statusPublished - Jan 15 2015



  • Immunity
  • Microglia
  • Neuroinflammation
  • T cell
  • Traumatic brain injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology

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