Germline but not somatic de novo mutations are common in human congenital diaphragmatic hernia

Nori Matsunami, Hari Shanmugam, Lisa Baird, Jeff Stevens, Janice L. Byrne, Douglas C. Barnhart, Carrie Rau, Marcia L. Feldkamp, Bradley A. Yoder, Mark F. Leppert, H. Joseph Yost, Luca Brunelli

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Objectives: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect of the diaphragm that causes high newborn morbidity and mortality. CDH is considered to be a multifactorial disease, with strong evidence implicating genetic factors. Although recent studies suggest the biological role of deleterious germline de novo variants, the effect of gene variants specific to the diaphragm remains unclear, and few single genes have been definitively implicated in human disease. Methods: We performed genome sequencing on 16 individuals with CDH and their unaffected parents, including 10 diaphragmatic samples. Results: We did not detect damaging somatic mutations in diaphragms, but identified germline heterozygous de novo functional mutations of 14 genes in nine patients. Although the majority of these genes are not known to be associated with CDH, one patient with CDH and cardiac anomalies harbored a frameshift mutation in NR2F2 (aka COUP-TFII), generating a premature truncation of the protein. This patient also carried a missense variant predicted to be damaging in XIRP2 (aka Myomaxin), a transcriptional target of MEF2A. Both NR2F2 and MEF2A map to chromosome 15q26, where recurring de novo deletions and unbalanced translocations have been observed in CDH. Conclusions: Somatic variants are not common in CDH. To our knowledge, this is the second case of a germline de novo frameshift mutation in NR2F2 in CDH. Since NR2F2 null mice exhibit a diaphragmatic defect, and XIRP2 is implicated in cardiac development, our data suggest the role of these two variants in the etiology of CDH, and possibly cardiac anomalies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)610-617
Number of pages8
JournalBirth Defects Research
Volume110
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 17 2018

Fingerprint

Genes
Diaphragms
Mutation
Diaphragm
Frameshift Mutation
Defects
Chromosomes
Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernias
Parents
Proteins
Newborn Infant
Genome
Morbidity
Mortality

Keywords

  • 15q26
  • COUP-TFII
  • NR2F2
  • XIRP2
  • congenital diaphragmatic hernia
  • de novo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Embryology
  • Toxicology
  • Developmental Biology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Matsunami, N., Shanmugam, H., Baird, L., Stevens, J., Byrne, J. L., Barnhart, D. C., ... Brunelli, L. (2018). Germline but not somatic de novo mutations are common in human congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Birth Defects Research, 110(7), 610-617. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1223

Germline but not somatic de novo mutations are common in human congenital diaphragmatic hernia. / Matsunami, Nori; Shanmugam, Hari; Baird, Lisa; Stevens, Jeff; Byrne, Janice L.; Barnhart, Douglas C.; Rau, Carrie; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Yoder, Bradley A.; Leppert, Mark F.; Yost, H. Joseph; Brunelli, Luca.

In: Birth Defects Research, Vol. 110, No. 7, 17.04.2018, p. 610-617.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Matsunami, N, Shanmugam, H, Baird, L, Stevens, J, Byrne, JL, Barnhart, DC, Rau, C, Feldkamp, ML, Yoder, BA, Leppert, MF, Yost, HJ & Brunelli, L 2018, 'Germline but not somatic de novo mutations are common in human congenital diaphragmatic hernia', Birth Defects Research, vol. 110, no. 7, pp. 610-617. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1223
Matsunami N, Shanmugam H, Baird L, Stevens J, Byrne JL, Barnhart DC et al. Germline but not somatic de novo mutations are common in human congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Birth Defects Research. 2018 Apr 17;110(7):610-617. https://doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1223
Matsunami, Nori ; Shanmugam, Hari ; Baird, Lisa ; Stevens, Jeff ; Byrne, Janice L. ; Barnhart, Douglas C. ; Rau, Carrie ; Feldkamp, Marcia L. ; Yoder, Bradley A. ; Leppert, Mark F. ; Yost, H. Joseph ; Brunelli, Luca. / Germline but not somatic de novo mutations are common in human congenital diaphragmatic hernia. In: Birth Defects Research. 2018 ; Vol. 110, No. 7. pp. 610-617.
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abstract = "Objectives: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect of the diaphragm that causes high newborn morbidity and mortality. CDH is considered to be a multifactorial disease, with strong evidence implicating genetic factors. Although recent studies suggest the biological role of deleterious germline de novo variants, the effect of gene variants specific to the diaphragm remains unclear, and few single genes have been definitively implicated in human disease. Methods: We performed genome sequencing on 16 individuals with CDH and their unaffected parents, including 10 diaphragmatic samples. Results: We did not detect damaging somatic mutations in diaphragms, but identified germline heterozygous de novo functional mutations of 14 genes in nine patients. Although the majority of these genes are not known to be associated with CDH, one patient with CDH and cardiac anomalies harbored a frameshift mutation in NR2F2 (aka COUP-TFII), generating a premature truncation of the protein. This patient also carried a missense variant predicted to be damaging in XIRP2 (aka Myomaxin), a transcriptional target of MEF2A. Both NR2F2 and MEF2A map to chromosome 15q26, where recurring de novo deletions and unbalanced translocations have been observed in CDH. Conclusions: Somatic variants are not common in CDH. To our knowledge, this is the second case of a germline de novo frameshift mutation in NR2F2 in CDH. Since NR2F2 null mice exhibit a diaphragmatic defect, and XIRP2 is implicated in cardiac development, our data suggest the role of these two variants in the etiology of CDH, and possibly cardiac anomalies.",
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AU - Barnhart, Douglas C.

AU - Rau, Carrie

AU - Feldkamp, Marcia L.

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AU - Yost, H. Joseph

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N2 - Objectives: Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is a developmental defect of the diaphragm that causes high newborn morbidity and mortality. CDH is considered to be a multifactorial disease, with strong evidence implicating genetic factors. Although recent studies suggest the biological role of deleterious germline de novo variants, the effect of gene variants specific to the diaphragm remains unclear, and few single genes have been definitively implicated in human disease. Methods: We performed genome sequencing on 16 individuals with CDH and their unaffected parents, including 10 diaphragmatic samples. Results: We did not detect damaging somatic mutations in diaphragms, but identified germline heterozygous de novo functional mutations of 14 genes in nine patients. Although the majority of these genes are not known to be associated with CDH, one patient with CDH and cardiac anomalies harbored a frameshift mutation in NR2F2 (aka COUP-TFII), generating a premature truncation of the protein. This patient also carried a missense variant predicted to be damaging in XIRP2 (aka Myomaxin), a transcriptional target of MEF2A. Both NR2F2 and MEF2A map to chromosome 15q26, where recurring de novo deletions and unbalanced translocations have been observed in CDH. Conclusions: Somatic variants are not common in CDH. To our knowledge, this is the second case of a germline de novo frameshift mutation in NR2F2 in CDH. Since NR2F2 null mice exhibit a diaphragmatic defect, and XIRP2 is implicated in cardiac development, our data suggest the role of these two variants in the etiology of CDH, and possibly cardiac anomalies.

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