Follicular dendritic cells of lymph nodes as human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus reservoirs and insights on cervical lymph node

Rajnish S. Dave, Pooja Jain, Siddappa Nagadenahalli Byrareddy

Research output: Contribution to journalShort survey

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

A hallmark feature of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the lymph nodes (LNs) is their ability to retain antigens and virions for a prolonged duration. FDCs in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are particularly relevant in elucidating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining LNs of the central nervous system. The FDC viral reservoir in both peripheral LN and CLN, like the other HIV reservoirs, contribute to both low-level viremia and viral resurgence upon cessation or failure of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Besides prolonged virion retention on FDCs in LNs and CLNs, the suboptimal penetration of cART at these anatomical sites is another factor contributing to establishing and maintaining this viral reservoir. Unlike the FDCs within the peripheral LNs, the CLN FDCs have only recently garnered attention. This interest in CLN FDCs has been driven by detailed characterization of the meningeal lymphatic system. As the CSF drains through the meningeal lymphatics and nasal lymphatics via the cribriform plate, CLN FDCs may acquire HIV after capturing them from T cells, antigen-presenting cells, or cell-free virions. In addition, CD4+ T follicular helper cells within the CLNs are productively infected as a result of acquiring the virus from the FDCs. In this review, we outline the underlying mechanisms of viral accumulation on CLN FDCs and its potential impact on viral resurgence or achieving a cure for HIV infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number805
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Volume9
Issue numberAPR
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 19 2018

Fingerprint

Follicular Dendritic Cells
Simian Immunodeficiency Virus
Lymph Nodes
HIV
Virion
Virus Diseases
Cerebrospinal Fluid
Ethmoid Bone
Lymphatic System
Viremia
Viral Tumor Antigens
Antigen-Presenting Cells
Helper-Inducer T-Lymphocytes
Nose

Keywords

  • Central nervous system
  • Cervical lymph nodes
  • Combined antiretroviral therapy
  • Follicular dendritic cells
  • Human immunodeficiency virus
  • Simian immunodeficiency virus
  • T follicular helper cells
  • Viral reservoirs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

Cite this

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title = "Follicular dendritic cells of lymph nodes as human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus reservoirs and insights on cervical lymph node",
abstract = "A hallmark feature of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the lymph nodes (LNs) is their ability to retain antigens and virions for a prolonged duration. FDCs in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are particularly relevant in elucidating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining LNs of the central nervous system. The FDC viral reservoir in both peripheral LN and CLN, like the other HIV reservoirs, contribute to both low-level viremia and viral resurgence upon cessation or failure of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Besides prolonged virion retention on FDCs in LNs and CLNs, the suboptimal penetration of cART at these anatomical sites is another factor contributing to establishing and maintaining this viral reservoir. Unlike the FDCs within the peripheral LNs, the CLN FDCs have only recently garnered attention. This interest in CLN FDCs has been driven by detailed characterization of the meningeal lymphatic system. As the CSF drains through the meningeal lymphatics and nasal lymphatics via the cribriform plate, CLN FDCs may acquire HIV after capturing them from T cells, antigen-presenting cells, or cell-free virions. In addition, CD4+ T follicular helper cells within the CLNs are productively infected as a result of acquiring the virus from the FDCs. In this review, we outline the underlying mechanisms of viral accumulation on CLN FDCs and its potential impact on viral resurgence or achieving a cure for HIV infection.",
keywords = "Central nervous system, Cervical lymph nodes, Combined antiretroviral therapy, Follicular dendritic cells, Human immunodeficiency virus, Simian immunodeficiency virus, T follicular helper cells, Viral reservoirs",
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T1 - Follicular dendritic cells of lymph nodes as human immunodeficiency virus/simian immunodeficiency virus reservoirs and insights on cervical lymph node

AU - Dave, Rajnish S.

AU - Jain, Pooja

AU - Byrareddy, Siddappa Nagadenahalli

PY - 2018/4/19

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N2 - A hallmark feature of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the lymph nodes (LNs) is their ability to retain antigens and virions for a prolonged duration. FDCs in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are particularly relevant in elucidating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining LNs of the central nervous system. The FDC viral reservoir in both peripheral LN and CLN, like the other HIV reservoirs, contribute to both low-level viremia and viral resurgence upon cessation or failure of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Besides prolonged virion retention on FDCs in LNs and CLNs, the suboptimal penetration of cART at these anatomical sites is another factor contributing to establishing and maintaining this viral reservoir. Unlike the FDCs within the peripheral LNs, the CLN FDCs have only recently garnered attention. This interest in CLN FDCs has been driven by detailed characterization of the meningeal lymphatic system. As the CSF drains through the meningeal lymphatics and nasal lymphatics via the cribriform plate, CLN FDCs may acquire HIV after capturing them from T cells, antigen-presenting cells, or cell-free virions. In addition, CD4+ T follicular helper cells within the CLNs are productively infected as a result of acquiring the virus from the FDCs. In this review, we outline the underlying mechanisms of viral accumulation on CLN FDCs and its potential impact on viral resurgence or achieving a cure for HIV infection.

AB - A hallmark feature of follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the lymph nodes (LNs) is their ability to retain antigens and virions for a prolonged duration. FDCs in the cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) are particularly relevant in elucidating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 infection within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining LNs of the central nervous system. The FDC viral reservoir in both peripheral LN and CLN, like the other HIV reservoirs, contribute to both low-level viremia and viral resurgence upon cessation or failure of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Besides prolonged virion retention on FDCs in LNs and CLNs, the suboptimal penetration of cART at these anatomical sites is another factor contributing to establishing and maintaining this viral reservoir. Unlike the FDCs within the peripheral LNs, the CLN FDCs have only recently garnered attention. This interest in CLN FDCs has been driven by detailed characterization of the meningeal lymphatic system. As the CSF drains through the meningeal lymphatics and nasal lymphatics via the cribriform plate, CLN FDCs may acquire HIV after capturing them from T cells, antigen-presenting cells, or cell-free virions. In addition, CD4+ T follicular helper cells within the CLNs are productively infected as a result of acquiring the virus from the FDCs. In this review, we outline the underlying mechanisms of viral accumulation on CLN FDCs and its potential impact on viral resurgence or achieving a cure for HIV infection.

KW - Central nervous system

KW - Cervical lymph nodes

KW - Combined antiretroviral therapy

KW - Follicular dendritic cells

KW - Human immunodeficiency virus

KW - Simian immunodeficiency virus

KW - T follicular helper cells

KW - Viral reservoirs

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