Family income, parent education, and perceived constraints as predictors of observed program quality and parent rated program quality

Julia C. Torquati, Helen H. Raikes, Catherine A. Huddleston-Casas, James A. Bovaird, Beatrice A. Harris

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Scopus citations


Observed child care quality and parent perceptions of child care quality received by children in poor (below Federal Poverty Line, FPL), low-income (between FPL and 200% of FPL), and non-low-income families were examined. Observations were completed in 359 center- and home-based child care programs in four Midwestern states and surveys were received from 1313 parents whose children were enrolled in these programs. Multilevel structural equation modeling revealed that programs with higher proportions of low-income families tend to have lower observed quality than programs with a higher proportion of non-low-income families. Programs with more educated parents tended to have better observed quality, however, more educated parents tended to have lower perceptions of quality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)453-464
Number of pages12
JournalEarly Childhood Research Quarterly
Issue number4
StatePublished - Sep 6 2011



  • Child care quality
  • Low-income children
  • Parent perceptions
  • Poverty

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Sociology and Political Science

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