Factors underlying the perception of effort during constant heart rate running above and below the critical heart rate

Haley C. Bergstrom, Terry J. Housh, Kristen C. Cochrane, Nathaniel D.M. Jenkins, Jorge M. Zuniga, Samuel L. Buckner, Jacob A. Goldsmith, Richard J. Schmidt, Glen O. Johnson, Joel T. Cramer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: This study examined: (1) the sustainability of the critical heart rate (CHR) minus 5 b min −1 (CHR − 5) and CHR plus 5 b min −1 (CHR + 5); (2) the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, minute ventilation ($$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E), breathing frequency (f b ), and electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) responses during treadmill running at CHR − 5 and CHR + 5 to determine what factors underlie the perception of effort when heart rate (HR) is held constant; and (3) the relationships among RPE, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, and HR, to determine which variable(s) reflect exhaustion during exercise performed at a constant HR. Methods: The CHR was determined in eight runners (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 3 years) from a series of four exhaustive, constant velocity runs. The RPE, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, f b , EMG AMP, and EMG MPF responses were recorded during runs at the CHR − 5 and CHR + 5. Results: At CHR − 5, RPE, f b , and EMG MPF increased, while velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased. At CHR + 5, RPE and f b increased, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased, and EMG MPF remained constant. Conclusions: The close association between f b and RPE throughout the run at CHR − 5 and during the last 50 % of the run at CHR + 5 indicated that muscle afferents may have provided feedback from metabolic and mechanical stimuli that contributed to the perceptual responses. In addition, only RPE consistently indicated exhaustion and the current findings supported its use to monitor exercise performed at a constant HR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2231-2241
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Applied Physiology
Volume115
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 22 2015

Fingerprint

Heart Rate
Ventilation
Respiration
Muscles
Power (Psychology)

Keywords

  • Constant heart rate exercise
  • Critical heart rate
  • Critical power
  • Critical velocity
  • Ratings of perceived exertion

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Physiology (medical)

Cite this

Factors underlying the perception of effort during constant heart rate running above and below the critical heart rate. / Bergstrom, Haley C.; Housh, Terry J.; Cochrane, Kristen C.; Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M.; Zuniga, Jorge M.; Buckner, Samuel L.; Goldsmith, Jacob A.; Schmidt, Richard J.; Johnson, Glen O.; Cramer, Joel T.

In: European Journal of Applied Physiology, Vol. 115, No. 10, 22.10.2015, p. 2231-2241.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bergstrom, HC, Housh, TJ, Cochrane, KC, Jenkins, NDM, Zuniga, JM, Buckner, SL, Goldsmith, JA, Schmidt, RJ, Johnson, GO & Cramer, JT 2015, 'Factors underlying the perception of effort during constant heart rate running above and below the critical heart rate', European Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 115, no. 10, pp. 2231-2241. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00421-015-3204-y
Bergstrom, Haley C. ; Housh, Terry J. ; Cochrane, Kristen C. ; Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M. ; Zuniga, Jorge M. ; Buckner, Samuel L. ; Goldsmith, Jacob A. ; Schmidt, Richard J. ; Johnson, Glen O. ; Cramer, Joel T. / Factors underlying the perception of effort during constant heart rate running above and below the critical heart rate. In: European Journal of Applied Physiology. 2015 ; Vol. 115, No. 10. pp. 2231-2241.
@article{4b24ad7c438c4af9a0bd3c206cb5e38a,
title = "Factors underlying the perception of effort during constant heart rate running above and below the critical heart rate",
abstract = "Purpose: This study examined: (1) the sustainability of the critical heart rate (CHR) minus 5 b min −1 (CHR − 5) and CHR plus 5 b min −1 (CHR + 5); (2) the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, minute ventilation ($$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E), breathing frequency (f b ), and electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) responses during treadmill running at CHR − 5 and CHR + 5 to determine what factors underlie the perception of effort when heart rate (HR) is held constant; and (3) the relationships among RPE, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, and HR, to determine which variable(s) reflect exhaustion during exercise performed at a constant HR. Methods: The CHR was determined in eight runners (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 3 years) from a series of four exhaustive, constant velocity runs. The RPE, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, f b , EMG AMP, and EMG MPF responses were recorded during runs at the CHR − 5 and CHR + 5. Results: At CHR − 5, RPE, f b , and EMG MPF increased, while velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased. At CHR + 5, RPE and f b increased, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased, and EMG MPF remained constant. Conclusions: The close association between f b and RPE throughout the run at CHR − 5 and during the last 50 {\%} of the run at CHR + 5 indicated that muscle afferents may have provided feedback from metabolic and mechanical stimuli that contributed to the perceptual responses. In addition, only RPE consistently indicated exhaustion and the current findings supported its use to monitor exercise performed at a constant HR.",
keywords = "Constant heart rate exercise, Critical heart rate, Critical power, Critical velocity, Ratings of perceived exertion",
author = "Bergstrom, {Haley C.} and Housh, {Terry J.} and Cochrane, {Kristen C.} and Jenkins, {Nathaniel D.M.} and Zuniga, {Jorge M.} and Buckner, {Samuel L.} and Goldsmith, {Jacob A.} and Schmidt, {Richard J.} and Johnson, {Glen O.} and Cramer, {Joel T.}",
year = "2015",
month = "10",
day = "22",
doi = "10.1007/s00421-015-3204-y",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "115",
pages = "2231--2241",
journal = "European Journal of Applied Physiology",
issn = "1439-6319",
publisher = "Springer Verlag",
number = "10",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Factors underlying the perception of effort during constant heart rate running above and below the critical heart rate

AU - Bergstrom, Haley C.

AU - Housh, Terry J.

AU - Cochrane, Kristen C.

AU - Jenkins, Nathaniel D.M.

AU - Zuniga, Jorge M.

AU - Buckner, Samuel L.

AU - Goldsmith, Jacob A.

AU - Schmidt, Richard J.

AU - Johnson, Glen O.

AU - Cramer, Joel T.

PY - 2015/10/22

Y1 - 2015/10/22

N2 - Purpose: This study examined: (1) the sustainability of the critical heart rate (CHR) minus 5 b min −1 (CHR − 5) and CHR plus 5 b min −1 (CHR + 5); (2) the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, minute ventilation ($$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E), breathing frequency (f b ), and electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) responses during treadmill running at CHR − 5 and CHR + 5 to determine what factors underlie the perception of effort when heart rate (HR) is held constant; and (3) the relationships among RPE, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, and HR, to determine which variable(s) reflect exhaustion during exercise performed at a constant HR. Methods: The CHR was determined in eight runners (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 3 years) from a series of four exhaustive, constant velocity runs. The RPE, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, f b , EMG AMP, and EMG MPF responses were recorded during runs at the CHR − 5 and CHR + 5. Results: At CHR − 5, RPE, f b , and EMG MPF increased, while velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased. At CHR + 5, RPE and f b increased, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased, and EMG MPF remained constant. Conclusions: The close association between f b and RPE throughout the run at CHR − 5 and during the last 50 % of the run at CHR + 5 indicated that muscle afferents may have provided feedback from metabolic and mechanical stimuli that contributed to the perceptual responses. In addition, only RPE consistently indicated exhaustion and the current findings supported its use to monitor exercise performed at a constant HR.

AB - Purpose: This study examined: (1) the sustainability of the critical heart rate (CHR) minus 5 b min −1 (CHR − 5) and CHR plus 5 b min −1 (CHR + 5); (2) the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, minute ventilation ($$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E), breathing frequency (f b ), and electromyographic amplitude (EMG AMP) and EMG mean power frequency (MPF) responses during treadmill running at CHR − 5 and CHR + 5 to determine what factors underlie the perception of effort when heart rate (HR) is held constant; and (3) the relationships among RPE, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, and HR, to determine which variable(s) reflect exhaustion during exercise performed at a constant HR. Methods: The CHR was determined in eight runners (mean ± SD; age = 24 ± 3 years) from a series of four exhaustive, constant velocity runs. The RPE, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, f b , EMG AMP, and EMG MPF responses were recorded during runs at the CHR − 5 and CHR + 5. Results: At CHR − 5, RPE, f b , and EMG MPF increased, while velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased. At CHR + 5, RPE and f b increased, velocity, $$ \dot{V}O_{2} $$V˙O2, $$ \dot{V}_{E} $$V˙E, and EMG AMP decreased, and EMG MPF remained constant. Conclusions: The close association between f b and RPE throughout the run at CHR − 5 and during the last 50 % of the run at CHR + 5 indicated that muscle afferents may have provided feedback from metabolic and mechanical stimuli that contributed to the perceptual responses. In addition, only RPE consistently indicated exhaustion and the current findings supported its use to monitor exercise performed at a constant HR.

KW - Constant heart rate exercise

KW - Critical heart rate

KW - Critical power

KW - Critical velocity

KW - Ratings of perceived exertion

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84941879651&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84941879651&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s00421-015-3204-y

DO - 10.1007/s00421-015-3204-y

M3 - Article

C2 - 26108674

AN - SCOPUS:84941879651

VL - 115

SP - 2231

EP - 2241

JO - European Journal of Applied Physiology

JF - European Journal of Applied Physiology

SN - 1439-6319

IS - 10

ER -