Extracellular Vesicle-Educated Macrophages Promote Early Achilles Tendon Healing

Connie S. Chamberlain, Anna E.B. Clements, John A. Kink, Ugeun Choi, Geoffrey S. Baer, Matthew A. Halanski, Peiman Hematti, Ray Vanderby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tendon healing follows a complex series of coordinated events, which ultimately produces a mechanically inferior tissue more scar-like than native tendon. More regenerative healing occurs when anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages play a more dominant role. Mesenchymal stromal/stem cells (MSCs) are able to polarize macrophages to an M2 immunophenotype via paracrine mechanisms. We previously reported that coculture of CD14+ macrophages (MQs) with MSCs resulted in a unique M2-like macrophage. More recently, we generated M2-like macrophages using only extracellular vesicles (EVs) isolated from MSCs creating “EV-educated macrophages” (also called exosome-educated macrophages [EEMs]), thereby foregoing direct use of MSCs. For the current study, we hypothesized that cell therapy with EEMs would improve in vivo tendon healing by modulating tissue inflammation and endogenous macrophage immunophenotypes. We evaluated effects of EEMs using a mouse Achilles tendon rupture model and compared results to normal tendon healing (without any biologic intervention), MSCs, MQs, or EVs. We found that exogenous administration of EEMs directly into the wound promoted a healing response that was significantly more functional and more regenerative. Injured tendons treated with exogenous EEMs exhibited (a) improved mechanical properties, (b) reduced inflammation, and (c) earlier angiogenesis. Treatment with MSC-derived EVs alone were less effective functionally but stimulated a biological response as evidenced by an increased number of endothelial cells and decreased M1/M2 ratio. Because of their regenerative and immunomodulatory effects, EEM treament could provide a novel strategy to promote wound healing in this and various other musculoskeletal injuries or pathologies where inflammation and inadequate healing is problematic. Stem Cells 2019;37:652–662.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)652-662
Number of pages11
JournalSTEM CELLS
Volume37
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - May 2019

Fingerprint

Achilles Tendon
Mesenchymal Stromal Cells
Macrophages
Exosomes
Tendons
Inflammation
Extracellular Vesicles
Wounds and Injuries
Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy
Coculture Techniques
Wound Healing
Cicatrix
Rupture
Anti-Inflammatory Agents
Stem Cells

Keywords

  • Achilles tendon injury
  • Extracellular vesicles
  • Macrophages
  • Mesenchymal stromal cells
  • Tendon healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Medicine
  • Developmental Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Chamberlain, C. S., Clements, A. E. B., Kink, J. A., Choi, U., Baer, G. S., Halanski, M. A., ... Vanderby, R. (2019). Extracellular Vesicle-Educated Macrophages Promote Early Achilles Tendon Healing. STEM CELLS, 37(5), 652-662. https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.2988

Extracellular Vesicle-Educated Macrophages Promote Early Achilles Tendon Healing. / Chamberlain, Connie S.; Clements, Anna E.B.; Kink, John A.; Choi, Ugeun; Baer, Geoffrey S.; Halanski, Matthew A.; Hematti, Peiman; Vanderby, Ray.

In: STEM CELLS, Vol. 37, No. 5, 05.2019, p. 652-662.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chamberlain, CS, Clements, AEB, Kink, JA, Choi, U, Baer, GS, Halanski, MA, Hematti, P & Vanderby, R 2019, 'Extracellular Vesicle-Educated Macrophages Promote Early Achilles Tendon Healing', STEM CELLS, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 652-662. https://doi.org/10.1002/stem.2988
Chamberlain, Connie S. ; Clements, Anna E.B. ; Kink, John A. ; Choi, Ugeun ; Baer, Geoffrey S. ; Halanski, Matthew A. ; Hematti, Peiman ; Vanderby, Ray. / Extracellular Vesicle-Educated Macrophages Promote Early Achilles Tendon Healing. In: STEM CELLS. 2019 ; Vol. 37, No. 5. pp. 652-662.
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