Expression of Toll-like receptors, interleukin 8, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and osteopontin in tissues from pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or serovar Choleraesuis

T. E. Burkey, K. A. Skjolaas, S. S. Dritz, J. E. Minton

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32 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two serovars of Salmonella enterica, namely serovar Typhimurium (ST) and serovar Choleraesuis (SC) account for the vast majority of clinical cases of swine salmonellosis worldwide. These serovars are thought to be transmitted among pigs in production settings mainly through fecal-oral routes. Yet, few studies have evaluated effects of these serovars on expression of innate immune targets when presented to pigs via repeated oral dosing in an attempt to model transmission in production settings. Thus, a primary objective of the current experiments was to evaluate expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and selected chemoattractive mediators (interleukin 8, IL8; macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF; osteopontin, OPN) in tissues from pigs exposed to ST or SC that had been transformed with kanamycin resistance and green (STG) or red (SCR) fluorescent protein to facilitate isolation from pen fecal samples. In vitro studies confirmed that STG and SCR largely (though not completely) retained their ability to upregulate IL8 and CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) in cultured swine jejunal epithelial cells. Transformed bacteria were then fed to pigs in an in vivo study to determine tissue specific effects on mRNA relative expression. Pigs were fed cookie dough inoculated with bacteria on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 with 108 CFU STG (n = 8) or SCR (n = 8), while control (CTL) pigs (n = 8) received dough without bacteria. Animals were sacrificed 14 days from the initial bacterial challenge and samples of tonsil, jejunum, ileum, colon, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver were removed for subsequent RNA isolation. Expression of mRNA in tissues was determined using real-time quantitative PCR and expressed relative to 18S rRNA. Within CTL pigs, when expressed relative to the content in liver, mRNA for all targets demonstrated substantial tissue effects (P < 0.001 for all TLR; MIF, and OPN; P < 0.05 for IL8). Feeding STG and SCR resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.05) tissue specific effects for TLR5, TLR9, IL8, MIF and OPN. However, aside from STG stimulated increase in IL8 in MLN (approximately 10-fold increase relative to CTL; P < 0.05), significant changes in other molecular targets were generally less than one-fold. Results suggest that transformed bacteria may be useful in modeling chronic oral exposure of pigs to economically important salmonellae serovars. However, although statistically significant effects of bacterial feeding were observed in selected tissues for some targets, most changes in mRNA were generally incremental in magnitude.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)309-319
Number of pages11
JournalVeterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Volume115
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 15 2007

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Toll-Like Receptor 8
Macrophage Migration-Inhibitory Factors
osteopontin
Osteopontin
Salmonella enterica
interleukin-8
Interleukin-8
Salmonella Typhimurium
serotypes
Swine
swine
Bacteria
bacteria
Messenger RNA
Toll-Like Receptors
dough
lymph nodes
mouth
Lymph Nodes
Serogroup

Keywords

  • Chemoattractive mediators
  • Salmonella
  • Swine Toll-like receptors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{e46e607072ab4ff9b058bfa4bd7bf240,
title = "Expression of Toll-like receptors, interleukin 8, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and osteopontin in tissues from pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or serovar Choleraesuis",
abstract = "Two serovars of Salmonella enterica, namely serovar Typhimurium (ST) and serovar Choleraesuis (SC) account for the vast majority of clinical cases of swine salmonellosis worldwide. These serovars are thought to be transmitted among pigs in production settings mainly through fecal-oral routes. Yet, few studies have evaluated effects of these serovars on expression of innate immune targets when presented to pigs via repeated oral dosing in an attempt to model transmission in production settings. Thus, a primary objective of the current experiments was to evaluate expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and selected chemoattractive mediators (interleukin 8, IL8; macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF; osteopontin, OPN) in tissues from pigs exposed to ST or SC that had been transformed with kanamycin resistance and green (STG) or red (SCR) fluorescent protein to facilitate isolation from pen fecal samples. In vitro studies confirmed that STG and SCR largely (though not completely) retained their ability to upregulate IL8 and CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) in cultured swine jejunal epithelial cells. Transformed bacteria were then fed to pigs in an in vivo study to determine tissue specific effects on mRNA relative expression. Pigs were fed cookie dough inoculated with bacteria on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 with 108 CFU STG (n = 8) or SCR (n = 8), while control (CTL) pigs (n = 8) received dough without bacteria. Animals were sacrificed 14 days from the initial bacterial challenge and samples of tonsil, jejunum, ileum, colon, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver were removed for subsequent RNA isolation. Expression of mRNA in tissues was determined using real-time quantitative PCR and expressed relative to 18S rRNA. Within CTL pigs, when expressed relative to the content in liver, mRNA for all targets demonstrated substantial tissue effects (P < 0.001 for all TLR; MIF, and OPN; P < 0.05 for IL8). Feeding STG and SCR resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.05) tissue specific effects for TLR5, TLR9, IL8, MIF and OPN. However, aside from STG stimulated increase in IL8 in MLN (approximately 10-fold increase relative to CTL; P < 0.05), significant changes in other molecular targets were generally less than one-fold. Results suggest that transformed bacteria may be useful in modeling chronic oral exposure of pigs to economically important salmonellae serovars. However, although statistically significant effects of bacterial feeding were observed in selected tissues for some targets, most changes in mRNA were generally incremental in magnitude.",
keywords = "Chemoattractive mediators, Salmonella, Swine Toll-like receptors",
author = "Burkey, {T. E.} and Skjolaas, {K. A.} and Dritz, {S. S.} and Minton, {J. E.}",
year = "2007",
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T1 - Expression of Toll-like receptors, interleukin 8, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, and osteopontin in tissues from pigs challenged with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium or serovar Choleraesuis

AU - Burkey, T. E.

AU - Skjolaas, K. A.

AU - Dritz, S. S.

AU - Minton, J. E.

PY - 2007/2/15

Y1 - 2007/2/15

N2 - Two serovars of Salmonella enterica, namely serovar Typhimurium (ST) and serovar Choleraesuis (SC) account for the vast majority of clinical cases of swine salmonellosis worldwide. These serovars are thought to be transmitted among pigs in production settings mainly through fecal-oral routes. Yet, few studies have evaluated effects of these serovars on expression of innate immune targets when presented to pigs via repeated oral dosing in an attempt to model transmission in production settings. Thus, a primary objective of the current experiments was to evaluate expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and selected chemoattractive mediators (interleukin 8, IL8; macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF; osteopontin, OPN) in tissues from pigs exposed to ST or SC that had been transformed with kanamycin resistance and green (STG) or red (SCR) fluorescent protein to facilitate isolation from pen fecal samples. In vitro studies confirmed that STG and SCR largely (though not completely) retained their ability to upregulate IL8 and CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) in cultured swine jejunal epithelial cells. Transformed bacteria were then fed to pigs in an in vivo study to determine tissue specific effects on mRNA relative expression. Pigs were fed cookie dough inoculated with bacteria on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 with 108 CFU STG (n = 8) or SCR (n = 8), while control (CTL) pigs (n = 8) received dough without bacteria. Animals were sacrificed 14 days from the initial bacterial challenge and samples of tonsil, jejunum, ileum, colon, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver were removed for subsequent RNA isolation. Expression of mRNA in tissues was determined using real-time quantitative PCR and expressed relative to 18S rRNA. Within CTL pigs, when expressed relative to the content in liver, mRNA for all targets demonstrated substantial tissue effects (P < 0.001 for all TLR; MIF, and OPN; P < 0.05 for IL8). Feeding STG and SCR resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.05) tissue specific effects for TLR5, TLR9, IL8, MIF and OPN. However, aside from STG stimulated increase in IL8 in MLN (approximately 10-fold increase relative to CTL; P < 0.05), significant changes in other molecular targets were generally less than one-fold. Results suggest that transformed bacteria may be useful in modeling chronic oral exposure of pigs to economically important salmonellae serovars. However, although statistically significant effects of bacterial feeding were observed in selected tissues for some targets, most changes in mRNA were generally incremental in magnitude.

AB - Two serovars of Salmonella enterica, namely serovar Typhimurium (ST) and serovar Choleraesuis (SC) account for the vast majority of clinical cases of swine salmonellosis worldwide. These serovars are thought to be transmitted among pigs in production settings mainly through fecal-oral routes. Yet, few studies have evaluated effects of these serovars on expression of innate immune targets when presented to pigs via repeated oral dosing in an attempt to model transmission in production settings. Thus, a primary objective of the current experiments was to evaluate expression of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and selected chemoattractive mediators (interleukin 8, IL8; macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF; osteopontin, OPN) in tissues from pigs exposed to ST or SC that had been transformed with kanamycin resistance and green (STG) or red (SCR) fluorescent protein to facilitate isolation from pen fecal samples. In vitro studies confirmed that STG and SCR largely (though not completely) retained their ability to upregulate IL8 and CC chemokine ligand 20 (CCL20) in cultured swine jejunal epithelial cells. Transformed bacteria were then fed to pigs in an in vivo study to determine tissue specific effects on mRNA relative expression. Pigs were fed cookie dough inoculated with bacteria on days 0, 3, 7, and 10 with 108 CFU STG (n = 8) or SCR (n = 8), while control (CTL) pigs (n = 8) received dough without bacteria. Animals were sacrificed 14 days from the initial bacterial challenge and samples of tonsil, jejunum, ileum, colon, mesenteric lymph node (MLN), spleen, and liver were removed for subsequent RNA isolation. Expression of mRNA in tissues was determined using real-time quantitative PCR and expressed relative to 18S rRNA. Within CTL pigs, when expressed relative to the content in liver, mRNA for all targets demonstrated substantial tissue effects (P < 0.001 for all TLR; MIF, and OPN; P < 0.05 for IL8). Feeding STG and SCR resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.05) tissue specific effects for TLR5, TLR9, IL8, MIF and OPN. However, aside from STG stimulated increase in IL8 in MLN (approximately 10-fold increase relative to CTL; P < 0.05), significant changes in other molecular targets were generally less than one-fold. Results suggest that transformed bacteria may be useful in modeling chronic oral exposure of pigs to economically important salmonellae serovars. However, although statistically significant effects of bacterial feeding were observed in selected tissues for some targets, most changes in mRNA were generally incremental in magnitude.

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