Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

Mariya Liyasova, Bin Li, Lawrence M Schopfer, Florian Nachon, Patrick Masson, Clement E. Furlong, Oksana Lockridge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

43 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri- o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80. Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48. h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25. ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7. months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)337-347
Number of pages11
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume256
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2011

Fingerprint

Butyrylcholinesterase
Aircraft
Tritolyl Phosphates
Assays
Oils
Air
Cabins (aircraft)
Engines
Plasmas
Peptides
Hydraulic fluids
Jet engines
Fumes
Poisons
Pepsin A
Metabolites
Serine
Ventilation
Seals
Mass spectrometry

Keywords

  • Aerotoxic syndrome
  • Butyrylcholinesterase
  • CBDP
  • Mass spectrometry
  • Titanium oxide
  • Tricresyl phosphate

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers. / Liyasova, Mariya; Li, Bin; Schopfer, Lawrence M; Nachon, Florian; Masson, Patrick; Furlong, Clement E.; Lockridge, Oksana.

In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, Vol. 256, No. 3, 01.11.2011, p. 337-347.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liyasova, Mariya ; Li, Bin ; Schopfer, Lawrence M ; Nachon, Florian ; Masson, Patrick ; Furlong, Clement E. ; Lockridge, Oksana. / Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers. In: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 2011 ; Vol. 256, No. 3. pp. 337-347.
@article{2f52c84ddc8a4bd786cdebe776ca6bc7,
title = "Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers",
abstract = "The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such {"}fume events{"}. Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri- o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80. Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48. h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25. ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3{\%} of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7. months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers.",
keywords = "Aerotoxic syndrome, Butyrylcholinesterase, CBDP, Mass spectrometry, Titanium oxide, Tricresyl phosphate",
author = "Mariya Liyasova and Bin Li and Schopfer, {Lawrence M} and Florian Nachon and Patrick Masson and Furlong, {Clement E.} and Oksana Lockridge",
year = "2011",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.taap.2011.06.016",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "256",
pages = "337--347",
journal = "Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology",
issn = "0041-008X",
publisher = "Academic Press Inc.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exposure to tri-o-cresyl phosphate detected in jet airplane passengers

AU - Liyasova, Mariya

AU - Li, Bin

AU - Schopfer, Lawrence M

AU - Nachon, Florian

AU - Masson, Patrick

AU - Furlong, Clement E.

AU - Lockridge, Oksana

PY - 2011/11/1

Y1 - 2011/11/1

N2 - The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri- o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80. Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48. h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25. ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7. months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers.

AB - The aircraft cabin and flight deck ventilation are supplied from partially compressed unfiltered bleed air directly from the engine. Worn or defective engine seals can result in the release of engine oil into the cabin air supply. Aircrew and passengers have complained of illness following such "fume events". Adverse health effects are hypothesized to result from exposure to tricresyl phosphate mixed esters, a chemical added to jet engine oil and hydraulic fluid for its anti-wear properties. Our goal was to develop a laboratory test for exposure to tricresyl phosphate. The assay was based on the fact that the active-site serine of butyrylcholinesterase reacts with the active metabolite of tri- o-cresyl phosphate, cresyl saligenin phosphate, to make a stable phosphorylated adduct with an added mass of 80. Da. No other organophosphorus agent makes this adduct in vivo on butyrylcholinesterase. Blood samples from jet airplane passengers were obtained 24-48. h after completing a flight. Butyrylcholinesterase was partially purified from 25. ml serum or plasma, digested with pepsin, enriched for phosphorylated peptides by binding to titanium oxide, and analyzed by mass spectrometry. Of 12 jet airplane passengers tested, 6 were positive for exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate that is, they had detectable amounts of the phosphorylated peptide FGEpSAGAAS. The level of exposure was very low. No more than 0.05 to 3% of plasma butyrylcholinesterase was modified. None of the subjects had toxic symptoms. Four of the positive subjects were retested 3 to 7. months following their last airplane trip and were found to be negative for phosphorylated butyrylcholinesterase. In conclusion, this is the first report of an assay that detects exposure to tri- o-cresyl phosphate in jet airplane travelers.

KW - Aerotoxic syndrome

KW - Butyrylcholinesterase

KW - CBDP

KW - Mass spectrometry

KW - Titanium oxide

KW - Tricresyl phosphate

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=80855138695&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=80855138695&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.taap.2011.06.016

DO - 10.1016/j.taap.2011.06.016

M3 - Article

VL - 256

SP - 337

EP - 347

JO - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

JF - Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology

SN - 0041-008X

IS - 3

ER -