### Abstract

Growth in two subscales, Informal and Formal Mathematics Skills, of the Test of Early Mathematics Abilitity–3 (TEMA-3) was explored in a sample of 281 children. Children were identified as either typically developing (TYP; n = 205) or having mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 76) based on their total TEMA-3 score at the end of prekindergarten. Their average level of informal and formal mathematics skills, growth rate over time, and rate of acceleration of growth were estimated using conventional growth modeling while controlling for the effects of gender. Results indicated that children with MD had significantly lower informal and formal mathematics knowledge than did TYP children at the end of kindergarten. However, for informal mathematics skills, children with MD grew at a significantly faster rate than did TYP children, and the rate of acceleration was also significantly faster for children with MD. In contrast, both the rate of growth and acceleration of growth in formal mathematics skills were significantly faster for TYP children than they were for children with MD. Implications for early MD identification and interventions are discussed.

Original language | English (US) |
---|---|

Pages (from-to) | 80-91 |

Number of pages | 12 |

Journal | Learning Disability Quarterly |

Volume | 42 |

Issue number | 2 |

DOIs | |

State | Published - May 1 2019 |

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### Keywords

- formal mathematics skills
- informal mathematics skills
- mathematics difficulties

### ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Education
- Health Professions(all)
- Behavioral Neuroscience

### Cite this

**Exploring Growth Trajectories of Informal and Formal Mathematics Skills Among Prekindergarten Children Struggling With Mathematics.** / Namkung, Min; Peng, Peng; Goodrich, John M; Molfese, Victoria J.

Research output: Contribution to journal › Article

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exploring Growth Trajectories of Informal and Formal Mathematics Skills Among Prekindergarten Children Struggling With Mathematics

AU - Namkung, Min

AU - Peng, Peng

AU - Goodrich, John M

AU - Molfese, Victoria J

PY - 2019/5/1

Y1 - 2019/5/1

N2 - Growth in two subscales, Informal and Formal Mathematics Skills, of the Test of Early Mathematics Abilitity–3 (TEMA-3) was explored in a sample of 281 children. Children were identified as either typically developing (TYP; n = 205) or having mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 76) based on their total TEMA-3 score at the end of prekindergarten. Their average level of informal and formal mathematics skills, growth rate over time, and rate of acceleration of growth were estimated using conventional growth modeling while controlling for the effects of gender. Results indicated that children with MD had significantly lower informal and formal mathematics knowledge than did TYP children at the end of kindergarten. However, for informal mathematics skills, children with MD grew at a significantly faster rate than did TYP children, and the rate of acceleration was also significantly faster for children with MD. In contrast, both the rate of growth and acceleration of growth in formal mathematics skills were significantly faster for TYP children than they were for children with MD. Implications for early MD identification and interventions are discussed.

AB - Growth in two subscales, Informal and Formal Mathematics Skills, of the Test of Early Mathematics Abilitity–3 (TEMA-3) was explored in a sample of 281 children. Children were identified as either typically developing (TYP; n = 205) or having mathematics difficulties (MD; n = 76) based on their total TEMA-3 score at the end of prekindergarten. Their average level of informal and formal mathematics skills, growth rate over time, and rate of acceleration of growth were estimated using conventional growth modeling while controlling for the effects of gender. Results indicated that children with MD had significantly lower informal and formal mathematics knowledge than did TYP children at the end of kindergarten. However, for informal mathematics skills, children with MD grew at a significantly faster rate than did TYP children, and the rate of acceleration was also significantly faster for children with MD. In contrast, both the rate of growth and acceleration of growth in formal mathematics skills were significantly faster for TYP children than they were for children with MD. Implications for early MD identification and interventions are discussed.

KW - formal mathematics skills

KW - informal mathematics skills

KW - mathematics difficulties

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85050180054&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85050180054&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0731948718786030

DO - 10.1177/0731948718786030

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85050180054

VL - 42

SP - 80

EP - 91

JO - Learning Disability Quarterly

JF - Learning Disability Quarterly

SN - 0731-9487

IS - 2

ER -