Experimental acute infection of alpacas with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subgenotype b alters peripheral blood and GALT leukocyte subsets

Christina L. Topliff, Abdulrahman A. Alkheraif, Charles A. Kuszynski, William C. Davis, David J Steffen, Jack A. Schmitz, Kent M Eskridge, Bryan Charleston, Jamie N. Henningson, Clayton L Kelling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen in cattle and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), causing acute and persistent BVDV infections. We characterized the effect of acute BVDV infection on the immune system of alpacas by determining lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as serum interferon levels. Alpacas were experimentally infected with BVDV-1b (strain CO-06). Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 d postinfection (dpi), and leukocytes of GALT at 9 dpi, and evaluated using flow cytometry. Serum interferon levels were determined daily. Flow cytometric analyses of peripheral blood leukocytes showed a significant decrease in CD4+, CD8+, and αβ T-lymphocytes at 3 dpi. CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased, and activated lymphocytes were significantly decreased in the C3-stomach region in BVDV-infected alpacas. Serum interferon concentrations significantly increased in BVDV-infected alpacas at 3–6 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Our study confirms that BVDV can be a primary acute pathogen in alpacas and that it induces an interferon response and alters leukocyte subset populations. The changes in the proportion of T-lymphocytes during the early stages of BVDV infection may result in transient immunosuppression that may contribute to secondary bacterial and viral infections, similar to cattle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)186-192
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Volume29
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017

Fingerprint

Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1
New World Camelids
Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses
alpacas
Bovine viral diarrhea virus
Lymphoid Tissue
leukocytes
Leukocytes
digestive system
blood
Virus Diseases
interferons
Infection
infection
Interferons
blood serum
lymphocytes
T-lymphocytes
Serum
Lymphocytes

Keywords

  • Alpacas
  • Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1
  • flow cytometry
  • serum interferon

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Experimental acute infection of alpacas with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subgenotype b alters peripheral blood and GALT leukocyte subsets. / Topliff, Christina L.; Alkheraif, Abdulrahman A.; Kuszynski, Charles A.; Davis, William C.; Steffen, David J; Schmitz, Jack A.; Eskridge, Kent M; Charleston, Bryan; Henningson, Jamie N.; Kelling, Clayton L.

In: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, Vol. 29, No. 2, 01.03.2017, p. 186-192.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Topliff, Christina L. ; Alkheraif, Abdulrahman A. ; Kuszynski, Charles A. ; Davis, William C. ; Steffen, David J ; Schmitz, Jack A. ; Eskridge, Kent M ; Charleston, Bryan ; Henningson, Jamie N. ; Kelling, Clayton L. / Experimental acute infection of alpacas with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subgenotype b alters peripheral blood and GALT leukocyte subsets. In: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 2017 ; Vol. 29, No. 2. pp. 186-192.
@article{75043a6b37b747b891c1b0c057b9a44e,
title = "Experimental acute infection of alpacas with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subgenotype b alters peripheral blood and GALT leukocyte subsets",
abstract = "Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen in cattle and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), causing acute and persistent BVDV infections. We characterized the effect of acute BVDV infection on the immune system of alpacas by determining lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as serum interferon levels. Alpacas were experimentally infected with BVDV-1b (strain CO-06). Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 d postinfection (dpi), and leukocytes of GALT at 9 dpi, and evaluated using flow cytometry. Serum interferon levels were determined daily. Flow cytometric analyses of peripheral blood leukocytes showed a significant decrease in CD4+, CD8+, and αβ T-lymphocytes at 3 dpi. CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased, and activated lymphocytes were significantly decreased in the C3-stomach region in BVDV-infected alpacas. Serum interferon concentrations significantly increased in BVDV-infected alpacas at 3–6 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Our study confirms that BVDV can be a primary acute pathogen in alpacas and that it induces an interferon response and alters leukocyte subset populations. The changes in the proportion of T-lymphocytes during the early stages of BVDV infection may result in transient immunosuppression that may contribute to secondary bacterial and viral infections, similar to cattle.",
keywords = "Alpacas, Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1, flow cytometry, serum interferon",
author = "Topliff, {Christina L.} and Alkheraif, {Abdulrahman A.} and Kuszynski, {Charles A.} and Davis, {William C.} and Steffen, {David J} and Schmitz, {Jack A.} and Eskridge, {Kent M} and Bryan Charleston and Henningson, {Jamie N.} and Kelling, {Clayton L}",
year = "2017",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/1040638717690015",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "186--192",
journal = "Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation",
issn = "1040-6387",
publisher = "American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Experimental acute infection of alpacas with Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 subgenotype b alters peripheral blood and GALT leukocyte subsets

AU - Topliff, Christina L.

AU - Alkheraif, Abdulrahman A.

AU - Kuszynski, Charles A.

AU - Davis, William C.

AU - Steffen, David J

AU - Schmitz, Jack A.

AU - Eskridge, Kent M

AU - Charleston, Bryan

AU - Henningson, Jamie N.

AU - Kelling, Clayton L

PY - 2017/3/1

Y1 - 2017/3/1

N2 - Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen in cattle and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), causing acute and persistent BVDV infections. We characterized the effect of acute BVDV infection on the immune system of alpacas by determining lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as serum interferon levels. Alpacas were experimentally infected with BVDV-1b (strain CO-06). Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 d postinfection (dpi), and leukocytes of GALT at 9 dpi, and evaluated using flow cytometry. Serum interferon levels were determined daily. Flow cytometric analyses of peripheral blood leukocytes showed a significant decrease in CD4+, CD8+, and αβ T-lymphocytes at 3 dpi. CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased, and activated lymphocytes were significantly decreased in the C3-stomach region in BVDV-infected alpacas. Serum interferon concentrations significantly increased in BVDV-infected alpacas at 3–6 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Our study confirms that BVDV can be a primary acute pathogen in alpacas and that it induces an interferon response and alters leukocyte subset populations. The changes in the proportion of T-lymphocytes during the early stages of BVDV infection may result in transient immunosuppression that may contribute to secondary bacterial and viral infections, similar to cattle.

AB - Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a pathogen in cattle and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), causing acute and persistent BVDV infections. We characterized the effect of acute BVDV infection on the immune system of alpacas by determining lymphocyte subpopulations in peripheral blood and gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT) as well as serum interferon levels. Alpacas were experimentally infected with BVDV-1b (strain CO-06). Peripheral blood leukocytes were isolated at 0, 3, 6, and 9 d postinfection (dpi), and leukocytes of GALT at 9 dpi, and evaluated using flow cytometry. Serum interferon levels were determined daily. Flow cytometric analyses of peripheral blood leukocytes showed a significant decrease in CD4+, CD8+, and αβ T-lymphocytes at 3 dpi. CD8+ lymphocytes were significantly increased, and activated lymphocytes were significantly decreased in the C3-stomach region in BVDV-infected alpacas. Serum interferon concentrations significantly increased in BVDV-infected alpacas at 3–6 dpi, peaking at 3 dpi. Our study confirms that BVDV can be a primary acute pathogen in alpacas and that it induces an interferon response and alters leukocyte subset populations. The changes in the proportion of T-lymphocytes during the early stages of BVDV infection may result in transient immunosuppression that may contribute to secondary bacterial and viral infections, similar to cattle.

KW - Alpacas

KW - Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1

KW - flow cytometry

KW - serum interferon

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85014589658&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85014589658&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/1040638717690015

DO - 10.1177/1040638717690015

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 186

EP - 192

JO - Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

JF - Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation

SN - 1040-6387

IS - 2

ER -