Exogenous progestogen and estrogen implicated in birth defects

J. J. Nora, A. H. Nora, J. Blu, J. Ingram, A. Fountain, M. Peterson, R. H. Lortscher, W. J. Kimberling

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


A five-year study of the possible teratogenicity of exogenous female sex hormones included three case-control studies and one cohort study. The first case-control study disclosed an estimated relative risk of 8.41 and a highly significant difference in maternal hormonal exposure (P < .001) between controls and infants with three major anomalies of the VACTERL group (V, vertebral; A, anal; C, cardiac; T, tracheal; E, esophageal; R, renal; and L, limb). Relative risk (RR) estimates of 5.58 (P=.017) and 3.35 (P < .001) were found in two case-control studies involving maternal hormonal exposure and patients with congenital heart lesions without other malformations. A controlled, single-blind prospective study disclosed an excess of patients with major malformations (RR = 2.75), congenital heart anomalies (RR = 6), and neurological and neural tube disorders preponderant in the presence of a precipitously declining exposure rate during a three-year period in our referral area.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)837-843
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of the American Medical Association
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 1978
Externally publishedYes


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Nora, J. J., Nora, A. H., Blu, J., Ingram, J., Fountain, A., Peterson, M., ... Kimberling, W. J. (1978). Exogenous progestogen and estrogen implicated in birth defects. Journal of the American Medical Association, 240(9), 837-843. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.240.9.837