Examining the validity of the homework performance questionnaire: Multi-informant assessment in elementary and middle school

Thomas J. Power, Marley W. Watkins, Jennifer A. Mautone, Christy M. Walcott, Michael J. Coutts, Susan M Sheridan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

11 Scopus citations


Methods for measuring homework performance have been limited primarily to parent reports of homework deficits. The Homework Performance Questionnaire (HPQ) was developed to assess the homework functioning of students in Grades 1 to 8 from the perspective of both teachers and parents. The purpose of this study was to examine the factorial validity of teacher and parent versions of this scale, and to evaluate gender and grade-level differences in factor scores. The HPQ was administered in 4 states from varying regions of the United States. The validation sample consisted of students (n=511) for whom both parent and teacher ratings were obtained (52% female, mean of 9.5 years of age, 79% non-Hispanic, and 78% White). The crossvalidation sample included 1,450 parent ratings and 166 teacher ratings with similar demographic characteristics. The results of confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated that the bestfitting model for teachers was a bifactor solution including a general factor and 2 orthogonal factors, referring to student self-regulation and competence. The best-fitting model for parents was also a bifactor solution, including a general factor and 3 orthogonal factors, referring to student self-regulation, student competence, and teacher support of homework. Gender differences were identified for the general and self-regulation factors of both versions. Overall, the findings provide strong support for the HPQ as a multi-informant, multidimensional measure of homework performance that has utility for the assessment of elementary and middle school students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)260-275
Number of pages16
JournalSchool Psychology Quarterly
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2015



  • Assessment
  • Homework
  • Parent ratings
  • Teacher ratings

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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