Evidence for an Association between Men’s Spontaneous Objectifying Gazing Behavior and their Endorsement of Objectifying Attitudes toward Women

Orly Bareket, Nurit Shnabel, Dekel Abeles, Sarah Gervais, Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Despite growing scientific interest in the sexually objectifying male gaze, the relation between men’s gazing behavior and their sexually objectifying attitudes has not yet been examined. The present study addressed this gap in the literature. Sixty-one heterosexual Israeli men viewed photographs of female targets while their spontaneous eye movements were monitored to detect the amount of time they spent looking at the target’s sexual body parts versus face. They also completed a self-report measure of Men’s Objectification of Women. Consistent with feminist theorizing about the objectifying gaze, we found moderate associations between men’s gaze behavior and endorsement of sexually objectifying attitudes. These findings establish the construct validity of the measure of the objectifying gaze as the time spent staring at women’s bodies versus faces, which has been commonly used in previous research based on its face validity—yet without empirically testing whether it measures the theoretical construct of interest. Our findings contribute to the literature about the relations between attitudes and behaviors by shedding light on the association between explicit, self-reported versus more subtle, behavioral manifestations of men’s sexual objectification of women. Practically, they suggest that interventions to reduce sexual objectification should target both explicit attitudes and gaze behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)245-256
Number of pages12
JournalSex Roles
Volume81
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 15 2019

Fingerprint

objectification
evidence
Heterosexuality
construct validity
Eye Movements
Human Body
Self Report
Israeli
Research
literature
time

Keywords

  • Explicit measures
  • Eye tracking
  • Implicit measures
  • Male gaze
  • Objectifying gaze
  • Sexual objectification

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Social Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

Cite this

Evidence for an Association between Men’s Spontaneous Objectifying Gazing Behavior and their Endorsement of Objectifying Attitudes toward Women. / Bareket, Orly; Shnabel, Nurit; Abeles, Dekel; Gervais, Sarah; Yuval-Greenberg, Shlomit.

In: Sex Roles, Vol. 81, No. 3-4, 15.08.2019, p. 245-256.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Bareket, Orly ; Shnabel, Nurit ; Abeles, Dekel ; Gervais, Sarah ; Yuval-Greenberg, Shlomit. / Evidence for an Association between Men’s Spontaneous Objectifying Gazing Behavior and their Endorsement of Objectifying Attitudes toward Women. In: Sex Roles. 2019 ; Vol. 81, No. 3-4. pp. 245-256.
@article{e66add0db21a460cb4f5ad9dbd501421,
title = "Evidence for an Association between Men’s Spontaneous Objectifying Gazing Behavior and their Endorsement of Objectifying Attitudes toward Women",
abstract = "Despite growing scientific interest in the sexually objectifying male gaze, the relation between men’s gazing behavior and their sexually objectifying attitudes has not yet been examined. The present study addressed this gap in the literature. Sixty-one heterosexual Israeli men viewed photographs of female targets while their spontaneous eye movements were monitored to detect the amount of time they spent looking at the target’s sexual body parts versus face. They also completed a self-report measure of Men’s Objectification of Women. Consistent with feminist theorizing about the objectifying gaze, we found moderate associations between men’s gaze behavior and endorsement of sexually objectifying attitudes. These findings establish the construct validity of the measure of the objectifying gaze as the time spent staring at women’s bodies versus faces, which has been commonly used in previous research based on its face validity—yet without empirically testing whether it measures the theoretical construct of interest. Our findings contribute to the literature about the relations between attitudes and behaviors by shedding light on the association between explicit, self-reported versus more subtle, behavioral manifestations of men’s sexual objectification of women. Practically, they suggest that interventions to reduce sexual objectification should target both explicit attitudes and gaze behavior.",
keywords = "Explicit measures, Eye tracking, Implicit measures, Male gaze, Objectifying gaze, Sexual objectification",
author = "Orly Bareket and Nurit Shnabel and Dekel Abeles and Sarah Gervais and Shlomit Yuval-Greenberg",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "15",
doi = "10.1007/s11199-018-0983-8",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "81",
pages = "245--256",
journal = "Sex Roles: A Journal of Research",
issn = "0360-0025",
publisher = "Springer New York",
number = "3-4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evidence for an Association between Men’s Spontaneous Objectifying Gazing Behavior and their Endorsement of Objectifying Attitudes toward Women

AU - Bareket, Orly

AU - Shnabel, Nurit

AU - Abeles, Dekel

AU - Gervais, Sarah

AU - Yuval-Greenberg, Shlomit

PY - 2019/8/15

Y1 - 2019/8/15

N2 - Despite growing scientific interest in the sexually objectifying male gaze, the relation between men’s gazing behavior and their sexually objectifying attitudes has not yet been examined. The present study addressed this gap in the literature. Sixty-one heterosexual Israeli men viewed photographs of female targets while their spontaneous eye movements were monitored to detect the amount of time they spent looking at the target’s sexual body parts versus face. They also completed a self-report measure of Men’s Objectification of Women. Consistent with feminist theorizing about the objectifying gaze, we found moderate associations between men’s gaze behavior and endorsement of sexually objectifying attitudes. These findings establish the construct validity of the measure of the objectifying gaze as the time spent staring at women’s bodies versus faces, which has been commonly used in previous research based on its face validity—yet without empirically testing whether it measures the theoretical construct of interest. Our findings contribute to the literature about the relations between attitudes and behaviors by shedding light on the association between explicit, self-reported versus more subtle, behavioral manifestations of men’s sexual objectification of women. Practically, they suggest that interventions to reduce sexual objectification should target both explicit attitudes and gaze behavior.

AB - Despite growing scientific interest in the sexually objectifying male gaze, the relation between men’s gazing behavior and their sexually objectifying attitudes has not yet been examined. The present study addressed this gap in the literature. Sixty-one heterosexual Israeli men viewed photographs of female targets while their spontaneous eye movements were monitored to detect the amount of time they spent looking at the target’s sexual body parts versus face. They also completed a self-report measure of Men’s Objectification of Women. Consistent with feminist theorizing about the objectifying gaze, we found moderate associations between men’s gaze behavior and endorsement of sexually objectifying attitudes. These findings establish the construct validity of the measure of the objectifying gaze as the time spent staring at women’s bodies versus faces, which has been commonly used in previous research based on its face validity—yet without empirically testing whether it measures the theoretical construct of interest. Our findings contribute to the literature about the relations between attitudes and behaviors by shedding light on the association between explicit, self-reported versus more subtle, behavioral manifestations of men’s sexual objectification of women. Practically, they suggest that interventions to reduce sexual objectification should target both explicit attitudes and gaze behavior.

KW - Explicit measures

KW - Eye tracking

KW - Implicit measures

KW - Male gaze

KW - Objectifying gaze

KW - Sexual objectification

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85056306807&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85056306807&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s11199-018-0983-8

DO - 10.1007/s11199-018-0983-8

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85056306807

VL - 81

SP - 245

EP - 256

JO - Sex Roles: A Journal of Research

JF - Sex Roles: A Journal of Research

SN - 0360-0025

IS - 3-4

ER -