Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a Surrogate for Salmonella During Extrusion of Low-Moisture Food

Tushar Verma, Xinyao Wei, Soon Kiat Lau, Andreia Bianchini, Kent M. Eskridge, Jeyamkondan Subbiah

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Abstract: Salmonella in low-moisture foods is an emerging challenge due to numerous food product recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. Identification of suitable surrogate is critical for process validation at industry level due to implementation of new Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011. The objective of this study was to evaluate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a surrogate for Salmonella during the extrusion of low-moisture food. Oat flour, a low-moisture food, was adjusted to different moisture (14% to 26% wet basis) and fat (5% to 15% w/w) contents and was inoculated with E. faecium NRRL B-2354. Inoculated material was then extruded in a lab-scale single-screw extruder running at different screw speeds (75 to 225 rpm) and different temperatures (75, 85, and 95 °C). A split-plot central composite 2nd order response surface design was used, with the central point replicated six times. The data from the selective media (m-Enterococcus agar) was used to build the response surface model for inactivation of E. faecium NRRL B-2354. Results indicated that E. faecium NRRL B-2354 always had higher heat resistance compared to Salmonella at all conditions evaluated in this study. However, the patterns of contour plots showing the effect of various product and process parameters on inactivation of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was different from that of Salmonella. Although E. faecium NRRL B-2354 may be an acceptable surrogate for extrusion of low-moisture products due to higher resistance than Salmonella, another surrogate with similar inactivation behavior may be preferred and needs to be identified. Practical Application: Food Safety Modernization Act requires the food industry to validate processing interventions. This study validated extrusion processing and demonstrated that E. faecium NRRL B-2354 is an acceptable surrogate for extrusion of low-moisture products. The developed response surface model allows the industry to identify process conditions to achieve a desired lethality for their products based on composition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1063-1072
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of food science
Volume83
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2018

Fingerprint

Enterococcus faecium
extrusion
Salmonella
Food
inactivation
Food Safety
screws
Social Change
Industry
Product Recalls and Withdrawals
oat flour
industry
Foodborne Diseases
extruders
Food Industry
selective media
Enterococcus
Flour
foodborne illness
Agar

Keywords

  • food safety
  • low-moisture foods
  • single screw extrusion
  • thermal inactivation
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a Surrogate for Salmonella During Extrusion of Low-Moisture Food. / Verma, Tushar; Wei, Xinyao; Lau, Soon Kiat; Bianchini, Andreia; Eskridge, Kent M.; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan.

In: Journal of food science, Vol. 83, No. 4, 04.2018, p. 1063-1072.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Verma, Tushar ; Wei, Xinyao ; Lau, Soon Kiat ; Bianchini, Andreia ; Eskridge, Kent M. ; Subbiah, Jeyamkondan. / Evaluation of Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a Surrogate for Salmonella During Extrusion of Low-Moisture Food. In: Journal of food science. 2018 ; Vol. 83, No. 4. pp. 1063-1072.
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AB - Abstract: Salmonella in low-moisture foods is an emerging challenge due to numerous food product recalls and foodborne illness outbreaks. Identification of suitable surrogate is critical for process validation at industry level due to implementation of new Food Safety Modernization Act of 2011. The objective of this study was to evaluate Enterococcus faecium NRRL B-2354 as a surrogate for Salmonella during the extrusion of low-moisture food. Oat flour, a low-moisture food, was adjusted to different moisture (14% to 26% wet basis) and fat (5% to 15% w/w) contents and was inoculated with E. faecium NRRL B-2354. Inoculated material was then extruded in a lab-scale single-screw extruder running at different screw speeds (75 to 225 rpm) and different temperatures (75, 85, and 95 °C). A split-plot central composite 2nd order response surface design was used, with the central point replicated six times. The data from the selective media (m-Enterococcus agar) was used to build the response surface model for inactivation of E. faecium NRRL B-2354. Results indicated that E. faecium NRRL B-2354 always had higher heat resistance compared to Salmonella at all conditions evaluated in this study. However, the patterns of contour plots showing the effect of various product and process parameters on inactivation of E. faecium NRRL B-2354 was different from that of Salmonella. Although E. faecium NRRL B-2354 may be an acceptable surrogate for extrusion of low-moisture products due to higher resistance than Salmonella, another surrogate with similar inactivation behavior may be preferred and needs to be identified. Practical Application: Food Safety Modernization Act requires the food industry to validate processing interventions. This study validated extrusion processing and demonstrated that E. faecium NRRL B-2354 is an acceptable surrogate for extrusion of low-moisture products. The developed response surface model allows the industry to identify process conditions to achieve a desired lethality for their products based on composition.

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