Evaluating Initial Reach and Robustness of a Practical Randomized Trial of Smoking Reduction

Russell E. Glasgow, Paul A Estabrooks, Alfred C. Marcus, Tammy L. Smith, Bridget Gaglio, Arnold H. Levinson, Suhong Tong

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: This study evaluated the reach, initial effectiveness, and potential moderators and mediators of results of a smoking reduction program. Design: A generally representative sample of 320 adult smokers from an HMO, scheduled for outpatient surgery or a diagnostic procedure, were randomized to enhanced usual care or a theory-based smoking reduction intervention that combined telephone counseling and tailored newsletters. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and carbon monoxide levels. Results: The intervention enrolled 30% of known eligible smokers and produced reductions of 3 cigarettes per day greater than enhanced usual care. Intervention participants were significantly more likely than control participants to achieve at least a 50% reduction in self-reported number of cigarettes using complete cases, imputation analyses, and intent-to-treat procedures. Similar patterns were seen for carbon monoxide results but were significant only in complete case analyses. The intervention was generally robust across patient characteristics (e.g., education, ethnicity, health literacy, and dependence) and phone counselors. Conclusion: Initial results suggest that this program has potential to reach and assist smokers who may not participate in cessation programs. Additional research is indicated to enhance intervention effects, assess maintenance, and evaluate public health impact.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)780-788
Number of pages9
JournalHealth Psychology
Volume27
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2008

Fingerprint

Tobacco Products
Smoking
Carbon Monoxide
Health Literacy
Health Maintenance Organizations
Ambulatory Surgical Procedures
Telephone
Counseling
Public Health
Maintenance
Outcome Assessment (Health Care)
Education
Research
Counselors

Keywords

  • RE-AIM
  • mediators
  • randomized controlled trial
  • smoking reduction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Evaluating Initial Reach and Robustness of a Practical Randomized Trial of Smoking Reduction. / Glasgow, Russell E.; Estabrooks, Paul A; Marcus, Alfred C.; Smith, Tammy L.; Gaglio, Bridget; Levinson, Arnold H.; Tong, Suhong.

In: Health Psychology, Vol. 27, No. 6, 01.11.2008, p. 780-788.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Glasgow, Russell E. ; Estabrooks, Paul A ; Marcus, Alfred C. ; Smith, Tammy L. ; Gaglio, Bridget ; Levinson, Arnold H. ; Tong, Suhong. / Evaluating Initial Reach and Robustness of a Practical Randomized Trial of Smoking Reduction. In: Health Psychology. 2008 ; Vol. 27, No. 6. pp. 780-788.
@article{8fd81251c0b2449986bf42f9d6006880,
title = "Evaluating Initial Reach and Robustness of a Practical Randomized Trial of Smoking Reduction",
abstract = "Objective: This study evaluated the reach, initial effectiveness, and potential moderators and mediators of results of a smoking reduction program. Design: A generally representative sample of 320 adult smokers from an HMO, scheduled for outpatient surgery or a diagnostic procedure, were randomized to enhanced usual care or a theory-based smoking reduction intervention that combined telephone counseling and tailored newsletters. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and carbon monoxide levels. Results: The intervention enrolled 30{\%} of known eligible smokers and produced reductions of 3 cigarettes per day greater than enhanced usual care. Intervention participants were significantly more likely than control participants to achieve at least a 50{\%} reduction in self-reported number of cigarettes using complete cases, imputation analyses, and intent-to-treat procedures. Similar patterns were seen for carbon monoxide results but were significant only in complete case analyses. The intervention was generally robust across patient characteristics (e.g., education, ethnicity, health literacy, and dependence) and phone counselors. Conclusion: Initial results suggest that this program has potential to reach and assist smokers who may not participate in cessation programs. Additional research is indicated to enhance intervention effects, assess maintenance, and evaluate public health impact.",
keywords = "RE-AIM, mediators, randomized controlled trial, smoking reduction",
author = "Glasgow, {Russell E.} and Estabrooks, {Paul A} and Marcus, {Alfred C.} and Smith, {Tammy L.} and Bridget Gaglio and Levinson, {Arnold H.} and Suhong Tong",
year = "2008",
month = "11",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1037/0278-6133.27.6.780",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "27",
pages = "780--788",
journal = "Health Psychology",
issn = "0278-6133",
publisher = "American Psychological Association Inc.",
number = "6",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Evaluating Initial Reach and Robustness of a Practical Randomized Trial of Smoking Reduction

AU - Glasgow, Russell E.

AU - Estabrooks, Paul A

AU - Marcus, Alfred C.

AU - Smith, Tammy L.

AU - Gaglio, Bridget

AU - Levinson, Arnold H.

AU - Tong, Suhong

PY - 2008/11/1

Y1 - 2008/11/1

N2 - Objective: This study evaluated the reach, initial effectiveness, and potential moderators and mediators of results of a smoking reduction program. Design: A generally representative sample of 320 adult smokers from an HMO, scheduled for outpatient surgery or a diagnostic procedure, were randomized to enhanced usual care or a theory-based smoking reduction intervention that combined telephone counseling and tailored newsletters. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and carbon monoxide levels. Results: The intervention enrolled 30% of known eligible smokers and produced reductions of 3 cigarettes per day greater than enhanced usual care. Intervention participants were significantly more likely than control participants to achieve at least a 50% reduction in self-reported number of cigarettes using complete cases, imputation analyses, and intent-to-treat procedures. Similar patterns were seen for carbon monoxide results but were significant only in complete case analyses. The intervention was generally robust across patient characteristics (e.g., education, ethnicity, health literacy, and dependence) and phone counselors. Conclusion: Initial results suggest that this program has potential to reach and assist smokers who may not participate in cessation programs. Additional research is indicated to enhance intervention effects, assess maintenance, and evaluate public health impact.

AB - Objective: This study evaluated the reach, initial effectiveness, and potential moderators and mediators of results of a smoking reduction program. Design: A generally representative sample of 320 adult smokers from an HMO, scheduled for outpatient surgery or a diagnostic procedure, were randomized to enhanced usual care or a theory-based smoking reduction intervention that combined telephone counseling and tailored newsletters. Main Outcome Measures: Self-reported number of cigarettes smoked and carbon monoxide levels. Results: The intervention enrolled 30% of known eligible smokers and produced reductions of 3 cigarettes per day greater than enhanced usual care. Intervention participants were significantly more likely than control participants to achieve at least a 50% reduction in self-reported number of cigarettes using complete cases, imputation analyses, and intent-to-treat procedures. Similar patterns were seen for carbon monoxide results but were significant only in complete case analyses. The intervention was generally robust across patient characteristics (e.g., education, ethnicity, health literacy, and dependence) and phone counselors. Conclusion: Initial results suggest that this program has potential to reach and assist smokers who may not participate in cessation programs. Additional research is indicated to enhance intervention effects, assess maintenance, and evaluate public health impact.

KW - RE-AIM

KW - mediators

KW - randomized controlled trial

KW - smoking reduction

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=57849144734&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=57849144734&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1037/0278-6133.27.6.780

DO - 10.1037/0278-6133.27.6.780

M3 - Article

VL - 27

SP - 780

EP - 788

JO - Health Psychology

JF - Health Psychology

SN - 0278-6133

IS - 6

ER -