Endothelium and the lipid metabolism: The current understanding

Sandeep T. Laroia, Apar Kishor Ganti, Archana T. Laroia, Ketki K. Tendulkar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

35 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The endothelium is a dynamic organ and responds to various physical and humoral conditions. The endothelium secretes several biologically active substances, both vasoconstrictors and vasodilators, which control these processes. Endothelial function is most commonly assessed as the vasodilatory response to stimuli. Several endothelium-dependent agonists have been identified, each of which acts through a membrane receptor. Nitric oxide which is continuously synthesized by the endothelium has a wide range of biological properties that maintain vascular homeostasis. It is a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation and thus has an important protective role. Endothelial dysfunction in hypercholesterolemic patients is in large part due to a reduced bioavailability of NO. Traditional coronary risk factors, especially hypercholesterolemia, produce endothelial dysfunction even in patients with normal blood vessels. The underlying mechanisms involve a local inflammatory response, release of cytokines and growth factors, activation of oxidation-sensitive mechanisms in the arterial wall, modulation of intracellular signaling pathways, increased oxidation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and quenching of nitric oxide. Clinical studies have shown a significant improvement in endothelial dysfunction following lowering of serum cholesterol levels, infusion of nitric oxide donors like L-arginine and exercise training. Clinical trials are underway examining the role of endothelin-1 receptor antagonists like bosentan in the prevention of graft atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-9
Number of pages9
JournalInternational Journal of Cardiology
Volume88
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2003

Fingerprint

Lipid Metabolism
Endothelium
Vasodilator Agents
Blood Vessels
Nitric Oxide
Endothelin A Receptors
Nitric Oxide Donors
Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors
Vasoconstrictor Agents
Hypercholesterolemia
LDL Cholesterol
Biological Availability
Arginine
Atherosclerosis
Intercellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins
Homeostasis
Cholesterol
Clinical Trials
Exercise
Cytokines

Keywords

  • Atherosclerosis
  • Endothelial dysfunction
  • Endothelin
  • Exercise training
  • Hypercholesterolemia
  • Nitric oxide

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Endothelium and the lipid metabolism : The current understanding. / Laroia, Sandeep T.; Ganti, Apar Kishor; Laroia, Archana T.; Tendulkar, Ketki K.

In: International Journal of Cardiology, Vol. 88, No. 1, 03.2003, p. 1-9.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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