Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease from The Gambia after the introduction of routine immunisation with a Hib conjugate vaccine: A prospective study

Richard A. Adegbola, Ousman Secka, George Lahai, Nellie Lloyd-Evans, Alpha Njie, Stanley Usen, Claire Oluwalana, Stephen Obaro, Martin Weber, Tumani Corrah, Kim Mulholland, Keith McAdam, Brian Greenwood, Paul J.M. Milligan

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Abstract

Background: Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997. We investigated the effectiveness of the vaccine when delivered through the expanded programme on immunisation and the effect of national immunisation on incidence of Hib disease. Methods: Surveillance for Hib disease was maintained in the western half of The Gambia using standard methods with an emphasis on meningitis. We estimated vaccine efficacy using the case control method, and vaccine coverage and population denominators for incidence rates using a cluster sample survey. Prevalence of Hib carriage in a sample of 1-2-year old children attending health centres for vaccination was ascertained with oropharyngeal swabs plated onto antiserum agar. Findings: Between May, 1997, and April, 2002, a total of 5984 children were examined for possible Hib infections. 49 children had Hib disease, 36 of whom had meningitis. The annual incidence rates of Hib meningitis before any use of the vaccine (1990-93) dropped from over 200 per 100 000 children aged younger than 1 year to none per 100 000 in 2002, and from 60 to no cases per 100 000 in children younger than 5 years. The prevalence of Hib carriage decreased from 12% to 0·25% (p<0·0001). Two doses of vaccine were needed for direct protection from Hib disease (vaccine efficacy 94%, 95% CI 62-99). Since most children received a protective dose after the age of greatest disease risk, indirect effects were important in reducing disease incidence. Interpretation: The Gambian Hib immunisation programme reduced the occurrence of Hib disease despite irregular vaccine supply. The effect of the programme in The Gambia has important implications for the introduction of the vaccine into routine immunisation programmes of other developing countries.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)144-150
Number of pages7
JournalLancet
Volume366
Issue number9480
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 9 2005

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Gambia
Haemophilus influenzae type b
Conjugate Vaccines
Immunization
Prospective Studies
Vaccines
Immunization Programs
Meningitis
Incidence
Tetanus Toxoid
Developing Countries
Agar
Polysaccharides
Immune Sera
Vaccination

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

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Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease from The Gambia after the introduction of routine immunisation with a Hib conjugate vaccine : A prospective study. / Adegbola, Richard A.; Secka, Ousman; Lahai, George; Lloyd-Evans, Nellie; Njie, Alpha; Usen, Stanley; Oluwalana, Claire; Obaro, Stephen; Weber, Martin; Corrah, Tumani; Mulholland, Kim; McAdam, Keith; Greenwood, Brian; Milligan, Paul J.M.

In: Lancet, Vol. 366, No. 9480, 09.07.2005, p. 144-150.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Adegbola, RA, Secka, O, Lahai, G, Lloyd-Evans, N, Njie, A, Usen, S, Oluwalana, C, Obaro, S, Weber, M, Corrah, T, Mulholland, K, McAdam, K, Greenwood, B & Milligan, PJM 2005, 'Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease from The Gambia after the introduction of routine immunisation with a Hib conjugate vaccine: A prospective study', Lancet, vol. 366, no. 9480, pp. 144-150. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(05)66788-8
Adegbola, Richard A. ; Secka, Ousman ; Lahai, George ; Lloyd-Evans, Nellie ; Njie, Alpha ; Usen, Stanley ; Oluwalana, Claire ; Obaro, Stephen ; Weber, Martin ; Corrah, Tumani ; Mulholland, Kim ; McAdam, Keith ; Greenwood, Brian ; Milligan, Paul J.M. / Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease from The Gambia after the introduction of routine immunisation with a Hib conjugate vaccine : A prospective study. In: Lancet. 2005 ; Vol. 366, No. 9480. pp. 144-150.
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abstract = "Background: Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997. We investigated the effectiveness of the vaccine when delivered through the expanded programme on immunisation and the effect of national immunisation on incidence of Hib disease. Methods: Surveillance for Hib disease was maintained in the western half of The Gambia using standard methods with an emphasis on meningitis. We estimated vaccine efficacy using the case control method, and vaccine coverage and population denominators for incidence rates using a cluster sample survey. Prevalence of Hib carriage in a sample of 1-2-year old children attending health centres for vaccination was ascertained with oropharyngeal swabs plated onto antiserum agar. Findings: Between May, 1997, and April, 2002, a total of 5984 children were examined for possible Hib infections. 49 children had Hib disease, 36 of whom had meningitis. The annual incidence rates of Hib meningitis before any use of the vaccine (1990-93) dropped from over 200 per 100 000 children aged younger than 1 year to none per 100 000 in 2002, and from 60 to no cases per 100 000 in children younger than 5 years. The prevalence of Hib carriage decreased from 12{\%} to 0·25{\%} (p<0·0001). Two doses of vaccine were needed for direct protection from Hib disease (vaccine efficacy 94{\%}, 95{\%} CI 62-99). Since most children received a protective dose after the age of greatest disease risk, indirect effects were important in reducing disease incidence. Interpretation: The Gambian Hib immunisation programme reduced the occurrence of Hib disease despite irregular vaccine supply. The effect of the programme in The Gambia has important implications for the introduction of the vaccine into routine immunisation programmes of other developing countries.",
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T1 - Elimination of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) disease from The Gambia after the introduction of routine immunisation with a Hib conjugate vaccine

T2 - A prospective study

AU - Adegbola, Richard A.

AU - Secka, Ousman

AU - Lahai, George

AU - Lloyd-Evans, Nellie

AU - Njie, Alpha

AU - Usen, Stanley

AU - Oluwalana, Claire

AU - Obaro, Stephen

AU - Weber, Martin

AU - Corrah, Tumani

AU - Mulholland, Kim

AU - McAdam, Keith

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AU - Milligan, Paul J.M.

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N2 - Background: Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997. We investigated the effectiveness of the vaccine when delivered through the expanded programme on immunisation and the effect of national immunisation on incidence of Hib disease. Methods: Surveillance for Hib disease was maintained in the western half of The Gambia using standard methods with an emphasis on meningitis. We estimated vaccine efficacy using the case control method, and vaccine coverage and population denominators for incidence rates using a cluster sample survey. Prevalence of Hib carriage in a sample of 1-2-year old children attending health centres for vaccination was ascertained with oropharyngeal swabs plated onto antiserum agar. Findings: Between May, 1997, and April, 2002, a total of 5984 children were examined for possible Hib infections. 49 children had Hib disease, 36 of whom had meningitis. The annual incidence rates of Hib meningitis before any use of the vaccine (1990-93) dropped from over 200 per 100 000 children aged younger than 1 year to none per 100 000 in 2002, and from 60 to no cases per 100 000 in children younger than 5 years. The prevalence of Hib carriage decreased from 12% to 0·25% (p<0·0001). Two doses of vaccine were needed for direct protection from Hib disease (vaccine efficacy 94%, 95% CI 62-99). Since most children received a protective dose after the age of greatest disease risk, indirect effects were important in reducing disease incidence. Interpretation: The Gambian Hib immunisation programme reduced the occurrence of Hib disease despite irregular vaccine supply. The effect of the programme in The Gambia has important implications for the introduction of the vaccine into routine immunisation programmes of other developing countries.

AB - Background: Routine immunisation of infants in The Gambia with a Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine began in May, 1997. We investigated the effectiveness of the vaccine when delivered through the expanded programme on immunisation and the effect of national immunisation on incidence of Hib disease. Methods: Surveillance for Hib disease was maintained in the western half of The Gambia using standard methods with an emphasis on meningitis. We estimated vaccine efficacy using the case control method, and vaccine coverage and population denominators for incidence rates using a cluster sample survey. Prevalence of Hib carriage in a sample of 1-2-year old children attending health centres for vaccination was ascertained with oropharyngeal swabs plated onto antiserum agar. Findings: Between May, 1997, and April, 2002, a total of 5984 children were examined for possible Hib infections. 49 children had Hib disease, 36 of whom had meningitis. The annual incidence rates of Hib meningitis before any use of the vaccine (1990-93) dropped from over 200 per 100 000 children aged younger than 1 year to none per 100 000 in 2002, and from 60 to no cases per 100 000 in children younger than 5 years. The prevalence of Hib carriage decreased from 12% to 0·25% (p<0·0001). Two doses of vaccine were needed for direct protection from Hib disease (vaccine efficacy 94%, 95% CI 62-99). Since most children received a protective dose after the age of greatest disease risk, indirect effects were important in reducing disease incidence. Interpretation: The Gambian Hib immunisation programme reduced the occurrence of Hib disease despite irregular vaccine supply. The effect of the programme in The Gambia has important implications for the introduction of the vaccine into routine immunisation programmes of other developing countries.

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