Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction: A double-blind, randomized trial

Stephen I. Rennard, Elbert D. Glover, Scott Leischow, David M. Daughton, Penny N. Glover, Myra Muramoto, Mikael Franzon, Tobias Danielsson, Björn Landfeldt, Åke Westin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

57 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Many smokers are not ready to quit but are interested in changing their smoking behavior, particularly if such a change is associated with a reduction in health risk. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in reducing smoking. Exploratory studies assessed whether reduction in smoking was associated with reduction in markers of disease risk. A total of 429 healthy smokers (smoking at least 20 cigarettes/day) were randomly assigned to either nicotine-containing or placebo inhalers, which subjects were allowed to use ad libitum for up to 1 year. The nicotine inhaler was significantly superior to placebo in achieving reduction in daily cigarette consumption by at least 50% after 4 months, compared with baseline (18% vs. 8%, p = .004). Active treatment promoted smoking cessation: 8% of subjects in the nicotine group and 1% in the placebo group were abstinent at month 15. Throughout the study, smoking reduction, per se, independent of treatment group, was associated with a statistically significant decrease in exhaled carbon monoxide and serum cotinine and thiocyanate. Smoking reduction also improved established risk markers for cardiovascular disease over 4 months. The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the active and placebo groups. The most common reatment-related adverse events were throat irritation and cough. In conclusion, the nicotine inhaler can help smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit to reduce daily cigarette consumption, which may be a health benefit on its own and may further promote quitting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)555-564
Number of pages10
JournalNicotine and Tobacco Research
Volume8
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2006

Fingerprint

Nebulizers and Vaporizers
Nicotine
Smoking
Placebos
Tobacco Products
Cotinine
Insurance Benefits
Smoking Cessation
Carbon Monoxide
Pharynx
Cough
Cardiovascular Diseases
Incidence
Health
Therapeutics
Serum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Rennard, S. I., Glover, E. D., Leischow, S., Daughton, D. M., Glover, P. N., Muramoto, M., ... Westin, Å. (2006). Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction: A double-blind, randomized trial. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 8(4), 555-564. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200600789916

Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction : A double-blind, randomized trial. / Rennard, Stephen I.; Glover, Elbert D.; Leischow, Scott; Daughton, David M.; Glover, Penny N.; Muramoto, Myra; Franzon, Mikael; Danielsson, Tobias; Landfeldt, Björn; Westin, Åke.

In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, 01.08.2006, p. 555-564.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Rennard, SI, Glover, ED, Leischow, S, Daughton, DM, Glover, PN, Muramoto, M, Franzon, M, Danielsson, T, Landfeldt, B & Westin, Å 2006, 'Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction: A double-blind, randomized trial', Nicotine and Tobacco Research, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 555-564. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200600789916
Rennard SI, Glover ED, Leischow S, Daughton DM, Glover PN, Muramoto M et al. Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction: A double-blind, randomized trial. Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2006 Aug 1;8(4):555-564. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200600789916
Rennard, Stephen I. ; Glover, Elbert D. ; Leischow, Scott ; Daughton, David M. ; Glover, Penny N. ; Muramoto, Myra ; Franzon, Mikael ; Danielsson, Tobias ; Landfeldt, Björn ; Westin, Åke. / Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction : A double-blind, randomized trial. In: Nicotine and Tobacco Research. 2006 ; Vol. 8, No. 4. pp. 555-564.
@article{baa16ca67adf48d3b8ae3355e8995d99,
title = "Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction: A double-blind, randomized trial",
abstract = "Many smokers are not ready to quit but are interested in changing their smoking behavior, particularly if such a change is associated with a reduction in health risk. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in reducing smoking. Exploratory studies assessed whether reduction in smoking was associated with reduction in markers of disease risk. A total of 429 healthy smokers (smoking at least 20 cigarettes/day) were randomly assigned to either nicotine-containing or placebo inhalers, which subjects were allowed to use ad libitum for up to 1 year. The nicotine inhaler was significantly superior to placebo in achieving reduction in daily cigarette consumption by at least 50{\%} after 4 months, compared with baseline (18{\%} vs. 8{\%}, p = .004). Active treatment promoted smoking cessation: 8{\%} of subjects in the nicotine group and 1{\%} in the placebo group were abstinent at month 15. Throughout the study, smoking reduction, per se, independent of treatment group, was associated with a statistically significant decrease in exhaled carbon monoxide and serum cotinine and thiocyanate. Smoking reduction also improved established risk markers for cardiovascular disease over 4 months. The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the active and placebo groups. The most common reatment-related adverse events were throat irritation and cough. In conclusion, the nicotine inhaler can help smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit to reduce daily cigarette consumption, which may be a health benefit on its own and may further promote quitting.",
author = "Rennard, {Stephen I.} and Glover, {Elbert D.} and Scott Leischow and Daughton, {David M.} and Glover, {Penny N.} and Myra Muramoto and Mikael Franzon and Tobias Danielsson and Bj{\"o}rn Landfeldt and {\AA}ke Westin",
year = "2006",
month = "8",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1080/14622200600789916",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
pages = "555--564",
journal = "Nicotine and Tobacco Research",
issn = "1462-2203",
publisher = "Oxford University Press",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in smoking reduction

T2 - A double-blind, randomized trial

AU - Rennard, Stephen I.

AU - Glover, Elbert D.

AU - Leischow, Scott

AU - Daughton, David M.

AU - Glover, Penny N.

AU - Muramoto, Myra

AU - Franzon, Mikael

AU - Danielsson, Tobias

AU - Landfeldt, Björn

AU - Westin, Åke

PY - 2006/8/1

Y1 - 2006/8/1

N2 - Many smokers are not ready to quit but are interested in changing their smoking behavior, particularly if such a change is associated with a reduction in health risk. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in reducing smoking. Exploratory studies assessed whether reduction in smoking was associated with reduction in markers of disease risk. A total of 429 healthy smokers (smoking at least 20 cigarettes/day) were randomly assigned to either nicotine-containing or placebo inhalers, which subjects were allowed to use ad libitum for up to 1 year. The nicotine inhaler was significantly superior to placebo in achieving reduction in daily cigarette consumption by at least 50% after 4 months, compared with baseline (18% vs. 8%, p = .004). Active treatment promoted smoking cessation: 8% of subjects in the nicotine group and 1% in the placebo group were abstinent at month 15. Throughout the study, smoking reduction, per se, independent of treatment group, was associated with a statistically significant decrease in exhaled carbon monoxide and serum cotinine and thiocyanate. Smoking reduction also improved established risk markers for cardiovascular disease over 4 months. The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the active and placebo groups. The most common reatment-related adverse events were throat irritation and cough. In conclusion, the nicotine inhaler can help smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit to reduce daily cigarette consumption, which may be a health benefit on its own and may further promote quitting.

AB - Many smokers are not ready to quit but are interested in changing their smoking behavior, particularly if such a change is associated with a reduction in health risk. The present study evaluated the efficacy of the nicotine inhaler in reducing smoking. Exploratory studies assessed whether reduction in smoking was associated with reduction in markers of disease risk. A total of 429 healthy smokers (smoking at least 20 cigarettes/day) were randomly assigned to either nicotine-containing or placebo inhalers, which subjects were allowed to use ad libitum for up to 1 year. The nicotine inhaler was significantly superior to placebo in achieving reduction in daily cigarette consumption by at least 50% after 4 months, compared with baseline (18% vs. 8%, p = .004). Active treatment promoted smoking cessation: 8% of subjects in the nicotine group and 1% in the placebo group were abstinent at month 15. Throughout the study, smoking reduction, per se, independent of treatment group, was associated with a statistically significant decrease in exhaled carbon monoxide and serum cotinine and thiocyanate. Smoking reduction also improved established risk markers for cardiovascular disease over 4 months. The incidence of adverse events did not differ significantly between the active and placebo groups. The most common reatment-related adverse events were throat irritation and cough. In conclusion, the nicotine inhaler can help smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit to reduce daily cigarette consumption, which may be a health benefit on its own and may further promote quitting.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=33747594556&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=33747594556&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/14622200600789916

DO - 10.1080/14622200600789916

M3 - Article

C2 - 16920653

AN - SCOPUS:33747594556

VL - 8

SP - 555

EP - 564

JO - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

JF - Nicotine and Tobacco Research

SN - 1462-2203

IS - 4

ER -