Effects of Direct Instruction, Cooperative Learning, and Independent Learning Practices on the Classroom Behavior of Students with Behavioral Disorders: A Comparative Analysis

J. Ron Nelson, Andrea Johnson, Nancy Marchand-Martella

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

30 Scopus citations


The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the effects of direct instruction, cooperative learning, and independent learning instructional practices on the classroom behavior of students with hehnvior disorders. Results indicated that there were distinct differences in the classroom behavior of the students during the direct instruction condition. In this condition, they displayed higher rates of on-task behavior and lower rates of disruptive behavior relative to the cooperative learning and independent learning conditions. There appeared to He little or no differences between the classroom behavior of the students during the cooperative learning condition and that during the independent learning condition. The results suggest (a) that the instructional sequence underlying direct instruction practices reduces the disruptive behavior of students, and (b) that instructional practices may serve as an aversive stimuli in classrooms.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)53-62
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 1 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

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