Dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), fed to rats for 2 years, produced bladder hyperplasia and tumors at doses of 40 and 100 p.p.m., more in females than males. No urothelial proliferation was seen in mice. Our objectives were to investigate the mode of action of bladder tumor formation, evaluate the dose-response and the role of diet and to determine if the urothelial effects were reversible. The study included groups of female F344 rats fed DMA in Purina 5002 diet at doses of 0, 2, 10, 40 or 100 p.p.m. for 10 weeks; two groups of females fed DMA (0 and 100 p.p.m.) in Altromin 1321 for 10 weeks; two groups of males fed DMA (0 and 100 p.p.m.) in Purina 5002 for 10 weeks; a female high-dose recovery group (100 p.p.m. in Purina 5002 diet for 10 weeks followed by control diet for 10 weeks); and two female groups (0 and 100 p.p.m.) in Purina diet for 20 weeks. Urothelial toxicity and hyperplasia were detected by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the bromodeoxyuridine labeling index was increased in the female 40 and 100 p.p.m. groups. The effects were less in males, but were similar in females fed DMA in Altromin 1321, SEM detected no abnormal urinary solids related to treatment in any group. Urinary calcium was increased in the females fed 40 and 100 p.p.m. in Purina diet, despite overall urinary dilution. Calcification was increased in kidneys of female rats fed Purina diet. The urothelial effects of DMA were reversible. The findings support a non-DNA reactive mechanism for DMA rat bladder carcinogenicity related to urothelial toxicity and regeneration. The toxicity is probably not due to urinary solids. The toxicity and regeneration are produced in a dose-responsive manner in female rats, are greater in female than in male rats, and are reversible.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research