Early Literacy Predictors and Second-Grade Outcomes in Children Who Are Hard of Hearing

J. Bruce Tomblin, Jake Oleson, Sophie E Ambrose, Elizabeth A. Walker, Mary Pat Moeller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations


This study contrasted the early literacy outcomes of children who are hard of hearing (CHH) with children with normal hearing (CNH). At age 5, prereading skills of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge were examined in CHH (N = 180) and CNH (N = 80). The CHH had poorer oral language and phonological processing abilities than the CNH but comparable knowledge of print. At age 8, measures of word reading, and reading comprehension yielded no differences between CHH (N = 108) and CNH (N = 62) except for reading comprehension for the moderately severe CHH. Reading achievement in CHH was found to exceed predictions based on prereading performance. This resilience was associated with gains in oral language during the early school years.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e179-e197
JournalChild development
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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