Dramatic increases in obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index among ethnic-immigrant and social class Groups in the United States, 1976-2008

Gopal K. Singh, Mohammad Siahpush, Robert A. Hiatt, Lava R. Timsina

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

150 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study examined trends in US obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index (BMI) among 30 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and length of immigration, and among detailed education, occupation, and income/poverty groups from 1976 to 2008. Using 1976-2008 National Health Interview Surveys, differentials in obesity, overweight, and BMI, based on self-reported height and weight, were analyzed by using disparity indices, logistic, and linear regression. The obesity prevalence for the US population aged ≥ 18 tripled from 8.7% in 1976 to 27.4% in 2008. Overweight prevalence increased from 36.9% in 1976 to 62.0% in 2008. During 1991-2008, obesity prevalence for US-born adults increased from 13.9 to 28.7%, while prevalence for immigrants increased from 9.5 to 20.7%. While immigrants in each ethnic group and time period had lower obesity and overweight prevalence and BMI than the US-born, immigrants' risk of obesity and overweight increased with increasing duration of residence. In 2003-2008, obesity prevalence ranged from 2.3% for recent Chinese immigrants to 31-39% for American Indians, US-born blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans, and long-term Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants. Between 1976 and 2008, the obesity prevalence more than quadrupled for those with a college education or sales occupation. Although higher prevalence was observed for lower education, income, and occupation levels in each period, socioeconomic gradients in obesity and overweight decreased over time because of more rapid increases in prevalence among higher socioeconomic groups. Continued immigrant and socioeconomic disparities in prevalence will likely have substantial impacts on future obesity trends in the US.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)94-110
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Community Health
Volume36
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2011

Fingerprint

Social Class
social class
Body Mass Index
Obesity
immigrant
Group
occupation
Occupations
income
Education
Hispanic Americans
education
American Indian
trend
sales
immigration
ethnic group
ethnicity
logistics
North American Indians

Keywords

  • Acculturation
  • Diet
  • Disparities
  • Ethnicity
  • Immigrant status
  • Obesity
  • Overweight
  • Physical activity
  • Socioeconomic status
  • Trend
  • United States

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Health(social science)
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Dramatic increases in obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index among ethnic-immigrant and social class Groups in the United States, 1976-2008. / Singh, Gopal K.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Hiatt, Robert A.; Timsina, Lava R.

In: Journal of Community Health, Vol. 36, No. 1, 01.02.2011, p. 94-110.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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abstract = "This study examined trends in US obesity and overweight prevalence and body mass index (BMI) among 30 immigrant groups, stratified by race/ethnicity and length of immigration, and among detailed education, occupation, and income/poverty groups from 1976 to 2008. Using 1976-2008 National Health Interview Surveys, differentials in obesity, overweight, and BMI, based on self-reported height and weight, were analyzed by using disparity indices, logistic, and linear regression. The obesity prevalence for the US population aged ≥ 18 tripled from 8.7{\%} in 1976 to 27.4{\%} in 2008. Overweight prevalence increased from 36.9{\%} in 1976 to 62.0{\%} in 2008. During 1991-2008, obesity prevalence for US-born adults increased from 13.9 to 28.7{\%}, while prevalence for immigrants increased from 9.5 to 20.7{\%}. While immigrants in each ethnic group and time period had lower obesity and overweight prevalence and BMI than the US-born, immigrants' risk of obesity and overweight increased with increasing duration of residence. In 2003-2008, obesity prevalence ranged from 2.3{\%} for recent Chinese immigrants to 31-39{\%} for American Indians, US-born blacks, Mexicans, and Puerto Ricans, and long-term Mexican and Puerto Rican immigrants. Between 1976 and 2008, the obesity prevalence more than quadrupled for those with a college education or sales occupation. Although higher prevalence was observed for lower education, income, and occupation levels in each period, socioeconomic gradients in obesity and overweight decreased over time because of more rapid increases in prevalence among higher socioeconomic groups. Continued immigrant and socioeconomic disparities in prevalence will likely have substantial impacts on future obesity trends in the US.",
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