Do priority effects benefit invasive plants more than native plants? An experiment with six grassland species

Timothy L. Dickson, Jennifer L. Hopwood, Brian J. Wilsey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

50 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Invasive, non-native plant species often outcompete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants frequently begin growth before native plants, yet few studies have examined whether invasives win in competition partly by colonizing disturbed sites more quickly or by beginning growth earlier in the season than native plants (i. e. due to priority effects). We hypothesized that invasive plant species would benefit more from priority effects than would comparable native species and that earlier growth of invasive species would decrease plant biodiversity. To test this hypothesis, we grew three pairs of invasive and native plant species from three different functional groups/plant families (C 3 grasses/Poaceae, non-leguminous forbs/Asteraceae, and legumes/Fabaceae). We seeded each of the species 3 weeks before seeding the other five species into large pots in a greenhouse. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found much stronger priority effects with invasive than native species. Each invasive species formed a near-monocultures when seeded first (97. 5 % of total biomass, on average) whereas native species did not similarly dominate (29. 8 % of total biomass, on average). Similarly, Simpson's species diversity was 81 % higher when the initially sown species was native rather than invasive. The literature suggests that invasive species in the field often begin growth earlier in the spring than native species and that climate change may increasingly allow invasives to begin growth before native species, indicating invasive priority effects may become increasingly common.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2617-2624
Number of pages8
JournalBiological Invasions
Volume14
Issue number12
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2012

Fingerprint

native species
grasslands
grassland
indigenous species
invasive species
experiment
biodiversity
biomass
monoculture
effect
seeding
forbs
functional group
species diversity
Poaceae
Fabaceae
Asteraceae
grass
sowing
legumes

Keywords

  • Dominance
  • Earlier growth
  • Exotic species
  • Non-native species
  • Plant invasion
  • Priority effect

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Ecology

Cite this

Do priority effects benefit invasive plants more than native plants? An experiment with six grassland species. / Dickson, Timothy L.; Hopwood, Jennifer L.; Wilsey, Brian J.

In: Biological Invasions, Vol. 14, No. 12, 01.12.2012, p. 2617-2624.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{132e7192c37e46f2887f111581c7fb6e,
title = "Do priority effects benefit invasive plants more than native plants? An experiment with six grassland species",
abstract = "Invasive, non-native plant species often outcompete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants frequently begin growth before native plants, yet few studies have examined whether invasives win in competition partly by colonizing disturbed sites more quickly or by beginning growth earlier in the season than native plants (i. e. due to priority effects). We hypothesized that invasive plant species would benefit more from priority effects than would comparable native species and that earlier growth of invasive species would decrease plant biodiversity. To test this hypothesis, we grew three pairs of invasive and native plant species from three different functional groups/plant families (C 3 grasses/Poaceae, non-leguminous forbs/Asteraceae, and legumes/Fabaceae). We seeded each of the species 3 weeks before seeding the other five species into large pots in a greenhouse. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found much stronger priority effects with invasive than native species. Each invasive species formed a near-monocultures when seeded first (97. 5 {\%} of total biomass, on average) whereas native species did not similarly dominate (29. 8 {\%} of total biomass, on average). Similarly, Simpson's species diversity was 81 {\%} higher when the initially sown species was native rather than invasive. The literature suggests that invasive species in the field often begin growth earlier in the spring than native species and that climate change may increasingly allow invasives to begin growth before native species, indicating invasive priority effects may become increasingly common.",
keywords = "Dominance, Earlier growth, Exotic species, Non-native species, Plant invasion, Priority effect",
author = "Dickson, {Timothy L.} and Hopwood, {Jennifer L.} and Wilsey, {Brian J.}",
year = "2012",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/s10530-012-0257-2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "2617--2624",
journal = "Biological Invasions",
issn = "1387-3547",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Do priority effects benefit invasive plants more than native plants? An experiment with six grassland species

AU - Dickson, Timothy L.

AU - Hopwood, Jennifer L.

AU - Wilsey, Brian J.

PY - 2012/12/1

Y1 - 2012/12/1

N2 - Invasive, non-native plant species often outcompete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants frequently begin growth before native plants, yet few studies have examined whether invasives win in competition partly by colonizing disturbed sites more quickly or by beginning growth earlier in the season than native plants (i. e. due to priority effects). We hypothesized that invasive plant species would benefit more from priority effects than would comparable native species and that earlier growth of invasive species would decrease plant biodiversity. To test this hypothesis, we grew three pairs of invasive and native plant species from three different functional groups/plant families (C 3 grasses/Poaceae, non-leguminous forbs/Asteraceae, and legumes/Fabaceae). We seeded each of the species 3 weeks before seeding the other five species into large pots in a greenhouse. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found much stronger priority effects with invasive than native species. Each invasive species formed a near-monocultures when seeded first (97. 5 % of total biomass, on average) whereas native species did not similarly dominate (29. 8 % of total biomass, on average). Similarly, Simpson's species diversity was 81 % higher when the initially sown species was native rather than invasive. The literature suggests that invasive species in the field often begin growth earlier in the spring than native species and that climate change may increasingly allow invasives to begin growth before native species, indicating invasive priority effects may become increasingly common.

AB - Invasive, non-native plant species often outcompete native species and reduce biodiversity. Invasive plants frequently begin growth before native plants, yet few studies have examined whether invasives win in competition partly by colonizing disturbed sites more quickly or by beginning growth earlier in the season than native plants (i. e. due to priority effects). We hypothesized that invasive plant species would benefit more from priority effects than would comparable native species and that earlier growth of invasive species would decrease plant biodiversity. To test this hypothesis, we grew three pairs of invasive and native plant species from three different functional groups/plant families (C 3 grasses/Poaceae, non-leguminous forbs/Asteraceae, and legumes/Fabaceae). We seeded each of the species 3 weeks before seeding the other five species into large pots in a greenhouse. Consistent with our hypothesis, we found much stronger priority effects with invasive than native species. Each invasive species formed a near-monocultures when seeded first (97. 5 % of total biomass, on average) whereas native species did not similarly dominate (29. 8 % of total biomass, on average). Similarly, Simpson's species diversity was 81 % higher when the initially sown species was native rather than invasive. The literature suggests that invasive species in the field often begin growth earlier in the spring than native species and that climate change may increasingly allow invasives to begin growth before native species, indicating invasive priority effects may become increasingly common.

KW - Dominance

KW - Earlier growth

KW - Exotic species

KW - Non-native species

KW - Plant invasion

KW - Priority effect

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84868338683&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84868338683&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/s10530-012-0257-2

DO - 10.1007/s10530-012-0257-2

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84868338683

VL - 14

SP - 2617

EP - 2624

JO - Biological Invasions

JF - Biological Invasions

SN - 1387-3547

IS - 12

ER -