DNA damage tolerance: A double-edged sword guarding the genome

Gargi Ghosal, Junjie Chen

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

105 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Preservation of genome integrity is an essential process for cell homeostasis. During the course of life of a single cell, the genome is constantly damaged by endogenous and exogenous agents. To ensure genome stability, cells use a global signaling network, namely the DNA damage response (DDR) to sense and repair DNA damage. DDR senses different types of DNA damage and coordinates a response that includes activation of transcription, cell cycle control, DNA repair pathways, apoptosis, senescence, and cell death. Despite several repair mechanisms that repair different types of DNA lesions, it is likely that the replication machinery would still encounter lesions that are mis-repaired or not repaired. Replication of damaged genome would result in high frequency of fork collapse and genome instability. In this scenario, the cells employ the DNA damage tolerance (DDT) pathway that recruits a specialized low fidelity translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase to bypass the lesions for repair at a later time point. Thus, DDT is not a repair pathway per se, but provides a mechanism to tolerate DNA lesions during replication thereby increasing survival and preventing genome instability. Paradoxically, DDT process is also associated with increased mutagenesis, which can in turn drive the cell to cancer development. Thus, DDT process functions as a double-edged sword guarding the genome. In this review, we will discuss the replication stress induced DNA damage-signaling cascade, the stabilization and rescue of stalled replication forks by the DDT pathway and the effect of the DDT pathway on cancer.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)107-129
Number of pages23
JournalTranslational Cancer Research
Volume2
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2013

Fingerprint

DNA Damage
Genome
Genomic Instability
DNA Repair
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Mutagenesis
Transcriptional Activation
Neoplasms
Homeostasis
Cell Death
Apoptosis
DNA

Keywords

  • DNA damage tolerance (DDT)
  • Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)
  • Replicative DNA polymerase
  • Stalled replication forks
  • Translesion polymerase
  • Translesion synthesis (TLS)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research

Cite this

DNA damage tolerance : A double-edged sword guarding the genome. / Ghosal, Gargi; Chen, Junjie.

In: Translational Cancer Research, Vol. 2, No. 3, 01.06.2013, p. 107-129.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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