Differential labeling of closely spaced biosensor electrodes via electrochemical lithography

Rebecca Y. Lai, Sang Ho Lee, H. T. Soh, Kevin W. Plaxco, Alan J. Heeger

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Electrochemical biosensors offer the promise of exceptional scalability and parallelizability. To achieve this promise, however, will require the development of new methods for the differential labeling of closely spaced electrodes with specific biomolecules such as DNA or proteins. Here we report a simple, highly selective method for passivating and differentially labeling closely separated gold electrodes with oligonucleotides or other biomolecules. Analogous to photolithography, where a light-sensitive resist is selectively removed to expose specific surfaces to further modification, we passivate gold electrodes with a self-assembled alkanethiol monolayer that protects them from modification. The monolayer is then electrochemically desorbed at relatively low potentials, allowing for the subsequent labeling of the now exposed array element with a specific sensing biomolecule. The observed passivation is highly efficient: using a C11 - OH monolayer as the passivating agent, we do not observe any detectable cross-contamination of adjacent electrodes (95 μm separation) upon labeling with a stem-loop DNA probe. Critically, the conditions employed are sufficiently gentle that depassivation reduces the DNA load on adjacent electrodes by only ∼1%, allowing for the sequential labeling of multiple, closely spaced electrodes. This technology paves the way for labeling multiple array elements sequentially without observable cross-contamination in a fast and controlled manner.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1932-1936
Number of pages5
JournalLangmuir
Volume22
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 14 2006

Fingerprint

bioinstrumentation
Biosensors
Labeling
Lithography
marking
lithography
Electrodes
electrodes
Biomolecules
DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid
Gold
Monolayers
contamination
Contamination
gold
oligonucleotides
Oligonucleotides
DNA Probes
Self assembled monolayers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces and Interfaces
  • Spectroscopy
  • Electrochemistry

Cite this

Differential labeling of closely spaced biosensor electrodes via electrochemical lithography. / Lai, Rebecca Y.; Lee, Sang Ho; Soh, H. T.; Plaxco, Kevin W.; Heeger, Alan J.

In: Langmuir, Vol. 22, No. 4, 14.02.2006, p. 1932-1936.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lai, Rebecca Y. ; Lee, Sang Ho ; Soh, H. T. ; Plaxco, Kevin W. ; Heeger, Alan J. / Differential labeling of closely spaced biosensor electrodes via electrochemical lithography. In: Langmuir. 2006 ; Vol. 22, No. 4. pp. 1932-1936.
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