Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2 ω6 and C18:3 ω3) do not suppress hepatic lipogenesis

Whitney Sealls, Monica Gonzalez, M. Julia Brosnan, Paul N. Black, Concetta C. DiRusso

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are promoted as beneficial in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In general, dietary omega 3 fatty acids are derived from plant sources as linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 ω3) the precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 ω3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 ω3). However, it remains unclear if the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) LNA can provide the same health benefits as the very long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) EPA and DHA generally derived from oily fish. In this study, mice were fed synthetic diets containing lard (low in PUFA and HUFA), canola oil (to supply PUFA), or a mixture of menhaden and arasco (fish and fungal) oils (to supply HUFA) for 8 weeks. The diets were neither high in calories nor fat, which was supplied at 6%. The lard and canola oil diets resulted in high levels of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol and elevation of lipogenic gene expression. By comparison livers from mice fed the fish/fungal oil diet had low levels of lipid accumulation and more closely resembled livers from mice fed standard laboratory chow. SREBP1c and PPARγ gene and protein expression were high in livers of animals fed diets containing lard or canola oil compared with fish/fungal oil. Hepatic fatty acid analyses indicated that dietary PUFA were efficiently converted to HUFA regardless of source. Therefore, differences in hepatic lipid levels and gene expression between dietary groups were due to exogenous fatty acid supplied rather than endogenous pools. These results have important implications for understanding the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by dietary fatty acids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)406-414
Number of pages9
JournalBiochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids
Volume1781
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2008

Fingerprint

Lipogenesis
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Liver
Fish Oils
Diet
Fatty Acids
Omega-3 Fatty Acids
Gene Expression
Lipids
Formulated Food
Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors
alpha-Linolenic Acid
Eicosapentaenoic Acid
Docosahexaenoic Acids
Metabolic Diseases
Insurance Benefits
Fishes
Triglycerides
Cardiovascular Diseases
Fats

Keywords

  • Canola oil
  • Dietary fat
  • Fatty liver
  • Fish oil
  • HUFA
  • Lard
  • PPARγ
  • PUFA
  • SREBP1c

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

Cite this

Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (C18:2 ω6 and C18:3 ω3) do not suppress hepatic lipogenesis. / Sealls, Whitney; Gonzalez, Monica; Brosnan, M. Julia; Black, Paul N.; DiRusso, Concetta C.

In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular and Cell Biology of Lipids, Vol. 1781, No. 8, 01.08.2008, p. 406-414.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids are promoted as beneficial in the prevention of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. In general, dietary omega 3 fatty acids are derived from plant sources as linolenic acid (LNA, C18:3 ω3) the precursor to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5 ω3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6 ω3). However, it remains unclear if the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) LNA can provide the same health benefits as the very long chain highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA) EPA and DHA generally derived from oily fish. In this study, mice were fed synthetic diets containing lard (low in PUFA and HUFA), canola oil (to supply PUFA), or a mixture of menhaden and arasco (fish and fungal) oils (to supply HUFA) for 8 weeks. The diets were neither high in calories nor fat, which was supplied at 6{\%}. The lard and canola oil diets resulted in high levels of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol and elevation of lipogenic gene expression. By comparison livers from mice fed the fish/fungal oil diet had low levels of lipid accumulation and more closely resembled livers from mice fed standard laboratory chow. SREBP1c and PPARγ gene and protein expression were high in livers of animals fed diets containing lard or canola oil compared with fish/fungal oil. Hepatic fatty acid analyses indicated that dietary PUFA were efficiently converted to HUFA regardless of source. Therefore, differences in hepatic lipid levels and gene expression between dietary groups were due to exogenous fatty acid supplied rather than endogenous pools. These results have important implications for understanding the regulation of hepatic lipogenesis by dietary fatty acids.",
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