Dichlorophenyl piperazines, including a recently-approved atypical antipsychotic, are potent inhibitors of DHCR7, the last enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis

Thiago Cardoso Genaro De Mattos, Keri A. Tallman, Luke B. Allen, Allison Anderson, Karoly Mirnics, Zeljka Korade, Ned A. Porter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

5 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

While antipsychotic medications provide important relief from debilitating psychotic symptoms, they also have significant adverse side effects, which might have relevant impact on human health. Several research studies, including ours, have shown that commonly used antipsychotics such as haloperidol and aripiprazole affect cholesterol biosynthesis at the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol. This transformation is promoted by the enzyme DHCR7 and its inhibition causes increases in plasma and tissue levels of 7-DHC. The inhibition of this enzymatic step by mutations in the Dhcr7 gene leads to Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a devastating human condition that can be replicated in rats by small molecule inhibitors of DHCR7. The fact that two compounds, brexpiprazole and cariprazine, that were recently approved by the FDA have substructural elements in common with the DHCR7 inhibitor aripiprazole, prompted us to evaluate the effect of brexpiprazole and cariprazine on cholesterol biosynthesis. We report that cariprazine affects levels of 7-DHC and cholesterol in cell culture incubations at concentrations as low as 5 nM. Furthermore, a common metabolite of cariprazine and aripiprazole, 2,3-(dichlorophenyl) piperazine, inhibits DHCR7 activity at concentrations comparable to those of the potent teratogen AY9944. The cell culture experiments were corroborated in mice in studies showing that treatment with cariprazine elevated 7-DHC in brain and serum. The consequences of sterol inhibition by antipsychotics in the developing nervous system and the safety of their use during pregnancy remains to be established.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)21-28
Number of pages8
JournalToxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Volume349
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 15 2018

Fingerprint

Piperazines
Biosynthesis
Antipsychotic Agents
Cholesterol
Cell culture
trans-1,4-Bis(2-chlorobenzaminomethyl)cyclohexane Dihydrochloride
Cell Culture Techniques
Smith-Lemli-Opitz Syndrome
Teratogens
Neurology
Sterols
Haloperidol
Metabolites
Nervous System
Rats
Brain
Genes
cariprazine
7-dehydrocholesterol reductase
Health

Keywords

  • Antipyschotics
  • Cholesterol biosynthesis
  • Neurodevelopment
  • Teratogen

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

Cite this

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title = "Dichlorophenyl piperazines, including a recently-approved atypical antipsychotic, are potent inhibitors of DHCR7, the last enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis",
abstract = "While antipsychotic medications provide important relief from debilitating psychotic symptoms, they also have significant adverse side effects, which might have relevant impact on human health. Several research studies, including ours, have shown that commonly used antipsychotics such as haloperidol and aripiprazole affect cholesterol biosynthesis at the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol. This transformation is promoted by the enzyme DHCR7 and its inhibition causes increases in plasma and tissue levels of 7-DHC. The inhibition of this enzymatic step by mutations in the Dhcr7 gene leads to Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a devastating human condition that can be replicated in rats by small molecule inhibitors of DHCR7. The fact that two compounds, brexpiprazole and cariprazine, that were recently approved by the FDA have substructural elements in common with the DHCR7 inhibitor aripiprazole, prompted us to evaluate the effect of brexpiprazole and cariprazine on cholesterol biosynthesis. We report that cariprazine affects levels of 7-DHC and cholesterol in cell culture incubations at concentrations as low as 5 nM. Furthermore, a common metabolite of cariprazine and aripiprazole, 2,3-(dichlorophenyl) piperazine, inhibits DHCR7 activity at concentrations comparable to those of the potent teratogen AY9944. The cell culture experiments were corroborated in mice in studies showing that treatment with cariprazine elevated 7-DHC in brain and serum. The consequences of sterol inhibition by antipsychotics in the developing nervous system and the safety of their use during pregnancy remains to be established.",
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author = "{Cardoso Genaro De Mattos}, Thiago and Tallman, {Keri A.} and Allen, {Luke B.} and Allison Anderson and Karoly Mirnics and Zeljka Korade and Porter, {Ned A.}",
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T1 - Dichlorophenyl piperazines, including a recently-approved atypical antipsychotic, are potent inhibitors of DHCR7, the last enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis

AU - Cardoso Genaro De Mattos, Thiago

AU - Tallman, Keri A.

AU - Allen, Luke B.

AU - Anderson, Allison

AU - Mirnics, Karoly

AU - Korade, Zeljka

AU - Porter, Ned A.

PY - 2018/6/15

Y1 - 2018/6/15

N2 - While antipsychotic medications provide important relief from debilitating psychotic symptoms, they also have significant adverse side effects, which might have relevant impact on human health. Several research studies, including ours, have shown that commonly used antipsychotics such as haloperidol and aripiprazole affect cholesterol biosynthesis at the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol. This transformation is promoted by the enzyme DHCR7 and its inhibition causes increases in plasma and tissue levels of 7-DHC. The inhibition of this enzymatic step by mutations in the Dhcr7 gene leads to Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a devastating human condition that can be replicated in rats by small molecule inhibitors of DHCR7. The fact that two compounds, brexpiprazole and cariprazine, that were recently approved by the FDA have substructural elements in common with the DHCR7 inhibitor aripiprazole, prompted us to evaluate the effect of brexpiprazole and cariprazine on cholesterol biosynthesis. We report that cariprazine affects levels of 7-DHC and cholesterol in cell culture incubations at concentrations as low as 5 nM. Furthermore, a common metabolite of cariprazine and aripiprazole, 2,3-(dichlorophenyl) piperazine, inhibits DHCR7 activity at concentrations comparable to those of the potent teratogen AY9944. The cell culture experiments were corroborated in mice in studies showing that treatment with cariprazine elevated 7-DHC in brain and serum. The consequences of sterol inhibition by antipsychotics in the developing nervous system and the safety of their use during pregnancy remains to be established.

AB - While antipsychotic medications provide important relief from debilitating psychotic symptoms, they also have significant adverse side effects, which might have relevant impact on human health. Several research studies, including ours, have shown that commonly used antipsychotics such as haloperidol and aripiprazole affect cholesterol biosynthesis at the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to cholesterol. This transformation is promoted by the enzyme DHCR7 and its inhibition causes increases in plasma and tissue levels of 7-DHC. The inhibition of this enzymatic step by mutations in the Dhcr7 gene leads to Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, a devastating human condition that can be replicated in rats by small molecule inhibitors of DHCR7. The fact that two compounds, brexpiprazole and cariprazine, that were recently approved by the FDA have substructural elements in common with the DHCR7 inhibitor aripiprazole, prompted us to evaluate the effect of brexpiprazole and cariprazine on cholesterol biosynthesis. We report that cariprazine affects levels of 7-DHC and cholesterol in cell culture incubations at concentrations as low as 5 nM. Furthermore, a common metabolite of cariprazine and aripiprazole, 2,3-(dichlorophenyl) piperazine, inhibits DHCR7 activity at concentrations comparable to those of the potent teratogen AY9944. The cell culture experiments were corroborated in mice in studies showing that treatment with cariprazine elevated 7-DHC in brain and serum. The consequences of sterol inhibition by antipsychotics in the developing nervous system and the safety of their use during pregnancy remains to be established.

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