Restricted access media using antibodies as immobilized ligands were developed for the rapid and selective capture of small analytes by immunoextraction, giving rise to materials referred to as immunoaffinity restricted access media (IA-RAM). To make such a material, intact antibodies for the desired target were first immobilized onto porous silica, with antibodies at or near the outer surface of the support then being treated with papain (or a related agent) to release and remove their binding domains. The result was a support in which only antibodies deep within the pores remained intact and able to bind to the target. Items evaluated in the development of such media included the immobilization method used for the antibodies, the pore size of the support, and the amount of papain and time that were used for support treatment. A theoretical model was also developed to describe the extent of binding domain removal based on the measured polypeptide content of the IA-RAM support before and after treatment with papain. The final optimized conditions for making the IA-RAM supports were used to prepare columns that contained antifluorescein antibodies. Injections of fluorescein and fluorescein-labeled bovine serum albumin onto these IA-RAM columns gave selective and quantitative extraction of fluorescein in 1-2 s. This approach can be used with other antibodies and low-mass targets and should be valuable for such applications as the rapid separation of drugs from drug-protein complexes or the isolation of labeled/modified peptides from intact proteins that contain the same modification or label.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Analytical Chemistry