Research related to self-efficacy has demonstrated that measures of this concept need to be specific to the behavior of interest. Self-efficacy is the degree of confidence one has to perform an activity. This article describes the development and testing of the Barnason Efficacy Expectation Scale (BEES). The instrument is a 15-item tool that uses a Likert scale to determine the coronary-artery-bypass-graft (CABG) patient's self-efficacy related to the risk-reduction-related aspects of recovery and lifestyle adjustment following CABG surgery (physical functioning, psychosocial functioning, coronary artery disease risk factor modification and self-care management). Internal consistency reliability of the instrument was 0.93, and principal components analysis revealed a single factor (Eigenvalue = 10.59, percent variance = 70.61%). Three phases of tool development are described in the article that document satisfactory reliability and validity (face, content, criterion, and construct).
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