Development of a Portable Immunoextraction-Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography System for Field Studies of Herbicide Residues

Mary Anne Nelson, Arther Gates, Maud Dodlinger, David S. Hage

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24 Scopus citations


A portable system based on immunoextraction and reversed-phase HPLC was developed for the field analysis of herbicides in groundwater and surface water. Atrazine, simazine, and cyanazine were used as model analytes for this work. These were measured in water by using three coupled columns: an anti-atrazine antibody column for the selective extraction of these analytes, a reversed-phase precolumn for their reconcentration, and a reversed-phase analytical column for their separation. Various factors were considered in the optimization of this system, including the binding properties of the immunoextraction column, the effect of flow rate on the performance of each column, the selection of sample volume, and the choice of mobile phases for the RPLC columns. A typical analysis with this system allowed the injection of one sample every 7.5 min and provided results for all three of the tested herbicides in less than 10 min. In the analysis of atrazine alone, samples could be injected every 4 min and results were obtained within 8 min. There was good correlation between this technique and a comparable benchtop system. The lower limits of detection for the given analytes were approximately 0.2-0.25 μg/L, with a linear range that extended to 20 μg/L and a dynamic range that went up to at least 100 μg/L. The use of this technique in the field was demonstrated through applications that involved the development of time and location profiles for triazine herbicides in environmental samples.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)805-813
Number of pages9
JournalAnalytical chemistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry

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