Development and validation of the vending evaluation for nutrient-density (VEND)ing audit

Tanya M. Horacek, Elif Dede Yildirim, Melissa Matthews Schreiber, Carol Byrd-Bredbenner, Sarah Colby, Adrienne A. White, Karla P. Shelnutt, Melissa D. Olfert, Anne E. Mathews, Kristin Riggsbee, Lisa D Franzen-Castle, Jesse Stabile Morrell, Kendra Kattelmann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: This paper describes the development and validation of the Vending Evaluation for Nutrient-Density (VEND)ing audit to comprehensively evaluate vended products based upon healthfulness, price and promotion, and machine accessibility. Methods: A novel vending nutrient-density score was created to determine the healthfulness of vended snack/beverage products. Field tested in United States colleges, VENDing audit (∑nutrient-density + 10 × % healthy products) and Support sub-scores (price + promotion + accessibility) were calculated for snack/beverage machines. Higher scores indicate more healthful vending options and supports for choosing healthfully. Nutrition Environment Measures Survey-Vending (NEMS-V) was used to validate the nutrient-density score for a sub-sample of machines. Sensitivity and specificity were computed by comparing the number of healthy snacks/beverages determined by NEMS-V and the VENDing nutrient-density scores. Results: Researchers conducted the VENDing audit on 228 snack/beverage vending machines at 9 universities within the United States and used both VENDing and NEMS-V on 33 snack and 52 beverage vending machines. Mean VENDing audit scores were 4.5 ± 2.0 (2.6, 3.4) and 2.6 ± 2.0 (0, 12) for snack/beverage machines, respectively. The number of products considered healthy assessed with both the VENDing nutrient-density scores and the NEMS-V were positively correlated for beverages (r = 0.687, p < 0.001) and snacks (r = 0.366, p < 0.05). The sensitivity was excellent for beverages (0.83) and moderate for snacks (0.69); while the specificity was moderate for both beverages (0.66) and snacks (0.50). Conclusions: The VENDing audit uses unique, valid, and reliable nutrient-density scoring to evaluate snacks/beverages along a continuum of healthful criteria and comprehensively evaluates the full vending environment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number514
JournalInternational journal of environmental research and public health
Volume16
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

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Snacks
Beverages
Food
Research Personnel
Sensitivity and Specificity

Keywords

  • Beverages
  • Food environment
  • Nutrient-density score
  • Snacks
  • Vending machines

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis

Cite this

Horacek, T. M., Yildirim, E. D., Schreiber, M. M., Byrd-Bredbenner, C., Colby, S., White, A. A., ... Kattelmann, K. (2019). Development and validation of the vending evaluation for nutrient-density (VEND)ing audit. International journal of environmental research and public health, 16(3), [514]. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030514

Development and validation of the vending evaluation for nutrient-density (VEND)ing audit. / Horacek, Tanya M.; Yildirim, Elif Dede; Schreiber, Melissa Matthews; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Colby, Sarah; White, Adrienne A.; Shelnutt, Karla P.; Olfert, Melissa D.; Mathews, Anne E.; Riggsbee, Kristin; Franzen-Castle, Lisa D; Morrell, Jesse Stabile; Kattelmann, Kendra.

In: International journal of environmental research and public health, Vol. 16, No. 3, 514, 01.02.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Horacek, TM, Yildirim, ED, Schreiber, MM, Byrd-Bredbenner, C, Colby, S, White, AA, Shelnutt, KP, Olfert, MD, Mathews, AE, Riggsbee, K, Franzen-Castle, LD, Morrell, JS & Kattelmann, K 2019, 'Development and validation of the vending evaluation for nutrient-density (VEND)ing audit', International journal of environmental research and public health, vol. 16, no. 3, 514. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16030514
Horacek, Tanya M. ; Yildirim, Elif Dede ; Schreiber, Melissa Matthews ; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol ; Colby, Sarah ; White, Adrienne A. ; Shelnutt, Karla P. ; Olfert, Melissa D. ; Mathews, Anne E. ; Riggsbee, Kristin ; Franzen-Castle, Lisa D ; Morrell, Jesse Stabile ; Kattelmann, Kendra. / Development and validation of the vending evaluation for nutrient-density (VEND)ing audit. In: International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019 ; Vol. 16, No. 3.
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AU - Colby, Sarah

AU - White, Adrienne A.

AU - Shelnutt, Karla P.

AU - Olfert, Melissa D.

AU - Mathews, Anne E.

AU - Riggsbee, Kristin

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