Development and validation of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for the determination of pyronaridine in human urine

Himanshu Naik, She Yi Wei, Mark S. Schmidt, Daryl J. Murry, Lawrence Fleckenstein

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5 Scopus citations


A reliable method has been developed for the determination of pyronaridine in human urine using amodiaquine as an internal standard. Liquid-liquid extraction was used for sample preparation. Analysis was performed on a Shimadzu LCMS-2010 in single ion monitoring positive mode using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) as an interface. The extracted ion for pyronaridine was m/z 518.20 and for amodiaquine was m/z 356.10. Chromatography was carried out using a Gemini 5 μm C18 3.0 mm × 150 mm column using 2 mM perflurooctanoic acid and acetonitrile mixture as a mobile phase delivered at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. The mobile phase was delivered in gradient mode. The retention times of pyronaridine and amodiaquine were 9.1 and 8.1 min respectively, with a total run time of 14 min. The assay was linear over a range of 14.3-1425 ng/mL for pyronaridine (R2 ≥ 0.992, weighted 1/Concentration). The analysis of quality control samples for pyronaridine at 28.5, 285, 684 and 1140 ng/mL demonstrated excellent precision with relative standard deviation of 5.1, 2.3, 3.9 and 9.2%, respectively (n = 5). Recoveries at concentrations of 28.5, 285, 684 and 1140 ng/mL were all greater than 85%.This LC-MS method for the determination of pyronaridine in human urine has excellent specifications for sensitivity, reproducibility and accuracy and can reliably quantitate concentrations of pyronaridine in urine as low as 14.3 ng/mL. The method will be used to quantify pyronaridine in human urine for pharmacokinetic and drug safety studies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)80-87
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Issue number1-2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 15 2007



  • Antiparasitic
  • Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy
  • Pyronaridine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Biochemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology

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