Determination of the earliest site of ventricular activation in Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome: Application of digital continuous loop two-dimensional echocardiography

John R. Windle, William F. Armstrong, Harvey Feigenbaum, William M. Miles, Eric N. Prystowsky

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20 Scopus citations


Surgical and transcatheter ablation of accessory atrioventricular (AV) connections (Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome) requires accurate localization of the accessory pathway. In a canine model of endocardial pacing, a continuous loop two-dimensional echocardiographic technique was developed for determining the earliest site of ventricular activation. This technique was then used to localize accessory AV connections in patients. Echocardiographic images were acquired on videotape and converted to a digital continuous loop format, from which the earliest site of systolic motion was determined. In six dogs, using six distinct endocardial sites, two blinded observers accurately identified the earliest site of ventricular activation in 31 (86%) of 36 and 32 (89%) of 36 locations. Determination of the earliest site of ventricular activation with the continuous loop digital technique was superior to standard analog analysis in overall accuracy (p < 0.02) and in intraobserver variability (p < 0.004). After validation of this technique, 21 patients with 22 accessory AV connections with anterograde conduction were studied. The earliest site of mechanical activity was determined during sinus (10 patients) or atrial paced (11 patients) rhythms by two blinded observers and compared with electrophysiologic mapping and surface electrocardiograms. Digitally processed echocardiograms correctly localized the earliest site of ventricular activation in 18 of 22 connections and predicted an adjacent location in the remaining 4. It is concluded that digitally processed continuous loop echocardiographic analysis accurately localizes the site of origin of ventricular activation in patients with ventricular pre-excitation associated with the Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1286-1294
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of the American College of Cardiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jan 1 1986


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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