Detection of walnut residues in foods using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Lynn Niemann, Steve L. Taylor, Susan L. Hefle

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Tree nuts, including walnuts, can be responsible for allergic reactions. Food manufacturers have the responsibility to declare the presence of walnuts on packaged foods even when trace residues may be present from the use of shared equipment or the adventitious contamination of ingredients. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, sensitive, and specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method for the detection of walnut protein residues. Mixtures of raw and roasted English walnuts of several varieties were defatted, powdered, and used as separate antigens in sheep and New Zealand white rabbits. An ELISA was developed using the sheep antiroasted walnut serum as the capture reagent and rabbit antiroasted walnut serum as the detector reagent followed by addition of commercial goat anti-rabbit IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase and subsequent substrate addition. The performance of the ELISA was validated by testing known amounts of walnut (0 to 100 ppm) either spiked into or manufactured into milk chocolate, cookies, muffins, or ice cream. Recoveries of 1 to 100 ppm walnutin-chocolate ranged from 71.6% to 119% ± 7% to 16.5%. The walnut ELISA has a detection limit of 1 ppm (1 μg/g) walnut in several food matrices. Substantial cross-reactivity was observedwith pecan while minimal cross-reactivity was noted for hazelnut, mustard, mace, and poppy seed among almost 100 foods and food ingredients tested. This walnut ELISA can be used to detect undeclared walnut residues in foods and ingredients and as a tool to validate the effectiveness of allergen control programs for walnuts.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)T51-T57
JournalJournal of food science
Volume74
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 1 2009

Fingerprint

Juglans
walnuts
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Food
ingredients
cross reaction
Rabbits
mace
Sheep
rabbits
omega-Chloroacetophenone
Carya
muffins
milk chocolate
Corylus
sheep
Papaver
Ice Cream
pecans

Keywords

  • Allergy
  • ELISA
  • Immunoassay
  • Walnut

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science

Cite this

Detection of walnut residues in foods using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. / Niemann, Lynn; Taylor, Steve L.; Hefle, Susan L.

In: Journal of food science, Vol. 74, No. 6, 01.08.2009, p. T51-T57.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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