Desmosterolosis and desmosterol homeostasis in the developing mouse brain

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Abstract

Cholesterol serves as a building material for cellular membranes and plays an important role in cellular metabolism. The brain relies on its own cholesterol biosynthesis, which starts during embryonic development. Cholesterol is synthesized from two immediate precursors, desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Mutations in the DHCR24 enzyme, which converts desmosterol into cholesterol, lead to desmosterolosis, an autosomal recessive developmental disorder. In this study, we assessed the brain content of desmosterol, 7-DHC, and cholesterol from development to adulthood, and analyzed the biochemical, molecular, and anatomical consequences of Dhcr24 mutations on the sterol profile in a mouse model of desmosterolosis and heterozygous Dhcr24 +/− carriers. Our HPLC-MS/MS studies revealed that by P0 desmosterol almost entirely replaced cholesterol in the Dhcr24-KO brain. The greatly elevated desmosterol levels were also present in the Dhcr24-Het brains irrespective of maternal genotype, persisting into adulthood. Furthermore, Dhcr24-KO mice brains showed complex changes in expression of lipid and sterol transcripts, nuclear receptors, and synaptic plasticity transcripts. Cultured Dhcr24-KO neurons showed increased arborization, which was also present in the Dhcr24-KO mouse brains. Finally, we observed a shared pathophysiological mechanism between the mouse models of desmosterolosis and Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (a genetic disorder of conversion of 7-DHC to cholesterol).

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Desmosterol
Homeostasis
Cholesterol
Brain
Sterols
Mutation
Inborn Genetic Diseases
Neuronal Plasticity
Cytoplasmic and Nuclear Receptors
Desmosterolosis
Embryonic Development
Genotype
High Pressure Liquid Chromatography
Mothers
Lipids
Neurons
Membranes

Keywords

  • 7-dehydrocholesterol
  • Dhcr24
  • Dhcr7
  • cholesterol
  • desmosterol

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • Genetics(clinical)

Cite this

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title = "Desmosterolosis and desmosterol homeostasis in the developing mouse brain",
abstract = "Cholesterol serves as a building material for cellular membranes and plays an important role in cellular metabolism. The brain relies on its own cholesterol biosynthesis, which starts during embryonic development. Cholesterol is synthesized from two immediate precursors, desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Mutations in the DHCR24 enzyme, which converts desmosterol into cholesterol, lead to desmosterolosis, an autosomal recessive developmental disorder. In this study, we assessed the brain content of desmosterol, 7-DHC, and cholesterol from development to adulthood, and analyzed the biochemical, molecular, and anatomical consequences of Dhcr24 mutations on the sterol profile in a mouse model of desmosterolosis and heterozygous Dhcr24 +/− carriers. Our HPLC-MS/MS studies revealed that by P0 desmosterol almost entirely replaced cholesterol in the Dhcr24-KO brain. The greatly elevated desmosterol levels were also present in the Dhcr24-Het brains irrespective of maternal genotype, persisting into adulthood. Furthermore, Dhcr24-KO mice brains showed complex changes in expression of lipid and sterol transcripts, nuclear receptors, and synaptic plasticity transcripts. Cultured Dhcr24-KO neurons showed increased arborization, which was also present in the Dhcr24-KO mouse brains. Finally, we observed a shared pathophysiological mechanism between the mouse models of desmosterolosis and Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (a genetic disorder of conversion of 7-DHC to cholesterol).",
keywords = "7-dehydrocholesterol, Dhcr24, Dhcr7, cholesterol, desmosterol",
author = "Allen, {Luke B.} and {Cardoso Genaro De Mattos}, Thiago and Porter, {Ned A.} and Karoly Mirnics and Zeljka Korade",
year = "2019",
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T1 - Desmosterolosis and desmosterol homeostasis in the developing mouse brain

AU - Allen, Luke B.

AU - Cardoso Genaro De Mattos, Thiago

AU - Porter, Ned A.

AU - Mirnics, Karoly

AU - Korade, Zeljka

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - Cholesterol serves as a building material for cellular membranes and plays an important role in cellular metabolism. The brain relies on its own cholesterol biosynthesis, which starts during embryonic development. Cholesterol is synthesized from two immediate precursors, desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Mutations in the DHCR24 enzyme, which converts desmosterol into cholesterol, lead to desmosterolosis, an autosomal recessive developmental disorder. In this study, we assessed the brain content of desmosterol, 7-DHC, and cholesterol from development to adulthood, and analyzed the biochemical, molecular, and anatomical consequences of Dhcr24 mutations on the sterol profile in a mouse model of desmosterolosis and heterozygous Dhcr24 +/− carriers. Our HPLC-MS/MS studies revealed that by P0 desmosterol almost entirely replaced cholesterol in the Dhcr24-KO brain. The greatly elevated desmosterol levels were also present in the Dhcr24-Het brains irrespective of maternal genotype, persisting into adulthood. Furthermore, Dhcr24-KO mice brains showed complex changes in expression of lipid and sterol transcripts, nuclear receptors, and synaptic plasticity transcripts. Cultured Dhcr24-KO neurons showed increased arborization, which was also present in the Dhcr24-KO mouse brains. Finally, we observed a shared pathophysiological mechanism between the mouse models of desmosterolosis and Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (a genetic disorder of conversion of 7-DHC to cholesterol).

AB - Cholesterol serves as a building material for cellular membranes and plays an important role in cellular metabolism. The brain relies on its own cholesterol biosynthesis, which starts during embryonic development. Cholesterol is synthesized from two immediate precursors, desmosterol and 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC). Mutations in the DHCR24 enzyme, which converts desmosterol into cholesterol, lead to desmosterolosis, an autosomal recessive developmental disorder. In this study, we assessed the brain content of desmosterol, 7-DHC, and cholesterol from development to adulthood, and analyzed the biochemical, molecular, and anatomical consequences of Dhcr24 mutations on the sterol profile in a mouse model of desmosterolosis and heterozygous Dhcr24 +/− carriers. Our HPLC-MS/MS studies revealed that by P0 desmosterol almost entirely replaced cholesterol in the Dhcr24-KO brain. The greatly elevated desmosterol levels were also present in the Dhcr24-Het brains irrespective of maternal genotype, persisting into adulthood. Furthermore, Dhcr24-KO mice brains showed complex changes in expression of lipid and sterol transcripts, nuclear receptors, and synaptic plasticity transcripts. Cultured Dhcr24-KO neurons showed increased arborization, which was also present in the Dhcr24-KO mouse brains. Finally, we observed a shared pathophysiological mechanism between the mouse models of desmosterolosis and Smith–Lemli–Opitz syndrome (a genetic disorder of conversion of 7-DHC to cholesterol).

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