Experimental models were created in rat fibula to represent impaired bone healing so that biological deficiencies that cause bone repair to fail or to be delayed may be investigated. These models consist of a 4-mm-long segmental defect, created in rat fibula by osteotomy, and fitted with a 7-mm-long tubular specimen of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) over the cut ends of the fibula. The experiments in this study involved various modifications of the DBM scaffold designed to reduce its osteoinductive activity: steam sterilization (sDBM), ethylene oxide sterilization (eoDBM), trypsin digestion (tDBM), and guanidine hydrochloride extraction (gDBM). Bone healing was evaluated by bending rigidity of the fibula and mineral content of the repair site at 7 weeks post-surgery. The sDBM scaffolds resorbed completely by 7 weeks and hence this model was a nonhealing negative control. Rigidities in the unmodified DBM and tDBM groups were comparable, whereas in the gDBM and eoDBM groups it was significantly reduced. Histologically, in the 4-mm defects repaired with unmodified DBM, direct and endochondral bone formation in the scaffold and the defect resulted in a neocortex consisting of woven and lamellar bone uniting the broken bone by 7 weeks post-surgery. We conclude that the eoDBM and gDBM groups represent failure or delay of the bone repair process when compared with the unmodified DBM group in which the process is analogous to normal bone healing.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cell Biology