Deformation behavior of foam laser targets fabricated by two-photon polymerization

Ying Liu, John H. Campbell, Ori Stein, Lijia Jiang, Jared Hund, Yongfeng Lu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Two-photon polymerization (2PP), which is a three-dimensional micro/nano-scale additive manufacturing process, is used to fabricate component for small custom experimental packages (“targets”) to support laser-driven, high-energy-density physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print millimeter-scale, low-density, and low atomic number (CHO) polymer matrices (“foams”). Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial acrylic photo-resins. Acrylic resins were chosen in order to meet the low atomic number requirement for the foam; that requirement precludes the use of low-shrinkage organic/inorganic hybrid resins. Here, we compare the use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are used to quantify the extent of the polymerization during 2PP vs. UV curing. The mechanical strength of beam and foam structures is examined, particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage is quantified, and finite element analysis is used in order to simulate the resulting deformation. Capillary drying forces during development are shown to be small and are likely below the elastic limit of the foam log-pile structures. In contrast, the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip (~5–10%) causes large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation, particularly near constrained boundaries and locations with sharp density transitions. Use of IP-S with an improved writing procedure results in a marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of resolution.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number498
JournalNanomaterials
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 6 2018

Fingerprint

Foams
Photons
Polymerization
Resins
Lasers
Acrylics
Acrylic Resins
Drying
3D printers
High energy lasers
Polymer matrix
Piles
Strength of materials
Curing
Raman spectroscopy
Shear stress
Infrared spectroscopy
Plastic deformation
Physics
Finite element method

Keywords

  • Acrylate resin
  • Laser targets
  • Low-density foam structures
  • Raman microspectroscopy
  • Structure deformation
  • Two-photon polymerization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Materials Science(all)

Cite this

Deformation behavior of foam laser targets fabricated by two-photon polymerization. / Liu, Ying; Campbell, John H.; Stein, Ori; Jiang, Lijia; Hund, Jared; Lu, Yongfeng.

In: Nanomaterials, Vol. 8, No. 7, 498, 06.07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liu, Ying ; Campbell, John H. ; Stein, Ori ; Jiang, Lijia ; Hund, Jared ; Lu, Yongfeng. / Deformation behavior of foam laser targets fabricated by two-photon polymerization. In: Nanomaterials. 2018 ; Vol. 8, No. 7.
@article{966a5dbe8f6f46ec88b3a1747a986d5a,
title = "Deformation behavior of foam laser targets fabricated by two-photon polymerization",
abstract = "Two-photon polymerization (2PP), which is a three-dimensional micro/nano-scale additive manufacturing process, is used to fabricate component for small custom experimental packages (“targets”) to support laser-driven, high-energy-density physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print millimeter-scale, low-density, and low atomic number (CHO) polymer matrices (“foams”). Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial acrylic photo-resins. Acrylic resins were chosen in order to meet the low atomic number requirement for the foam; that requirement precludes the use of low-shrinkage organic/inorganic hybrid resins. Here, we compare the use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are used to quantify the extent of the polymerization during 2PP vs. UV curing. The mechanical strength of beam and foam structures is examined, particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage is quantified, and finite element analysis is used in order to simulate the resulting deformation. Capillary drying forces during development are shown to be small and are likely below the elastic limit of the foam log-pile structures. In contrast, the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip (~5–10{\%}) causes large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation, particularly near constrained boundaries and locations with sharp density transitions. Use of IP-S with an improved writing procedure results in a marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of resolution.",
keywords = "Acrylate resin, Laser targets, Low-density foam structures, Raman microspectroscopy, Structure deformation, Two-photon polymerization",
author = "Ying Liu and Campbell, {John H.} and Ori Stein and Lijia Jiang and Jared Hund and Yongfeng Lu",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "6",
doi = "10.3390/nano8070498",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
journal = "Nanomaterials",
issn = "2079-4991",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Deformation behavior of foam laser targets fabricated by two-photon polymerization

AU - Liu, Ying

AU - Campbell, John H.

AU - Stein, Ori

AU - Jiang, Lijia

AU - Hund, Jared

AU - Lu, Yongfeng

PY - 2018/7/6

Y1 - 2018/7/6

N2 - Two-photon polymerization (2PP), which is a three-dimensional micro/nano-scale additive manufacturing process, is used to fabricate component for small custom experimental packages (“targets”) to support laser-driven, high-energy-density physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print millimeter-scale, low-density, and low atomic number (CHO) polymer matrices (“foams”). Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial acrylic photo-resins. Acrylic resins were chosen in order to meet the low atomic number requirement for the foam; that requirement precludes the use of low-shrinkage organic/inorganic hybrid resins. Here, we compare the use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are used to quantify the extent of the polymerization during 2PP vs. UV curing. The mechanical strength of beam and foam structures is examined, particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage is quantified, and finite element analysis is used in order to simulate the resulting deformation. Capillary drying forces during development are shown to be small and are likely below the elastic limit of the foam log-pile structures. In contrast, the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip (~5–10%) causes large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation, particularly near constrained boundaries and locations with sharp density transitions. Use of IP-S with an improved writing procedure results in a marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of resolution.

AB - Two-photon polymerization (2PP), which is a three-dimensional micro/nano-scale additive manufacturing process, is used to fabricate component for small custom experimental packages (“targets”) to support laser-driven, high-energy-density physics research. Of particular interest is the use of 2PP to deterministically print millimeter-scale, low-density, and low atomic number (CHO) polymer matrices (“foams”). Deformation during development and drying of the foam structures remains a challenge when using certain commercial acrylic photo-resins. Acrylic resins were chosen in order to meet the low atomic number requirement for the foam; that requirement precludes the use of low-shrinkage organic/inorganic hybrid resins. Here, we compare the use of acrylic resins IP-S and IP-Dip. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy are used to quantify the extent of the polymerization during 2PP vs. UV curing. The mechanical strength of beam and foam structures is examined, particularly the degree of deformation that occurs during the development and drying processes. The magnitude of the shrinkage is quantified, and finite element analysis is used in order to simulate the resulting deformation. Capillary drying forces during development are shown to be small and are likely below the elastic limit of the foam log-pile structures. In contrast, the substantial shrinkage in IP-Dip (~5–10%) causes large shear stresses and associated plastic deformation, particularly near constrained boundaries and locations with sharp density transitions. Use of IP-S with an improved writing procedure results in a marked reduction in deformation with a minor loss of resolution.

KW - Acrylate resin

KW - Laser targets

KW - Low-density foam structures

KW - Raman microspectroscopy

KW - Structure deformation

KW - Two-photon polymerization

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85049828691&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85049828691&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/nano8070498

DO - 10.3390/nano8070498

M3 - Article

C2 - 29986426

AN - SCOPUS:85049828691

VL - 8

JO - Nanomaterials

JF - Nanomaterials

SN - 2079-4991

IS - 7

M1 - 498

ER -