CXCR4-targeted liposomal mediated co-delivery of pirfenidone and AMD3100 for the treatment of TGFΒ-induced HSC-T6 cells activation

Aftab Ullah, Kaikai Wang, Pengkai Wu, David Oupicky, Minjie Sun

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease associated with an excessive accumulation of extracellualr matrix (ECM) proteins which ultimately lead to cirrohosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Purpose: Liver fibrosis therapies that use combination approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways have proven higher efficacies. This study aimed at optimizing and characterizing the co-encapsulation of pirfenidone (PF) and AMD3100 (AMD) into CXCR4-targeted combination liposomes (CTC liposome) for CXCR4 targeting, and the inhibition of major molecular culprits ie α-SMA, CXCR4, TGFΒ, and P-p38 involved in liver fibrosis in-vitro. Methods: The CTC liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. The concentration of encapsulated AMD and PF was measured by HPLC and UV spectrophotometry, respectively. Tramsmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the liposomal morphology. The CXCR4 targeting ability was determined by CXCR4 redistribution assay. Confocal microscopy and flowcytometry were used to determine the CXCR4 mediated cell uptake. The apoptosis inducing and protein downreguating ability of CTC liposomes were determined by apoptosis assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Invivo biodistribution and Hoechst staining were used to confirm the feasibility of CTC liposome for the in-vivo applications and drug targeted accumulation, respectively. Results: The TEM studies revealed that CTC liposomes were spherical in shape. The cumulative release of AMD and PF from CTC liposome was 67% and 84%, respectively, at 48 h. Compared to the free drug counterparts, encapsulated drugs displayed higher cell viability. The CXCR4 redistribution assay confirmed the CXCR4 targeting and antagonistic ability of CTC liposomes. The CTC liposomes were internalized more effectively via caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways. CTC liposomes displayed aggressive apoptosis (87.3%) in TGFΒ-induced activated HSC-T6 cells suggesting a propensity to fibrosis regression. Also, CTC liposomes significantly reduced α-SMA (65%), CXCR4 (77%), TGFΒ (89%), and P-p38 (66%) expressions, better than free drugs. CTC@IR780 liposomes (CTC liposomes incorporating IR780 dye) were more accumulated in fibrotic livers compared to free IR780, as judged by in-vivo imaging, biodistribution analysis, and Hoechst staining. These findings suggest that this simple and stable CTC liposomal system holds a great promise for the treatment and prevention of liver fibrosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2927-2944
Number of pages18
JournalInternational journal of nanomedicine
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Liposomes
Chemical activation
Liver
Liver Cirrhosis
Cell death
Therapeutics
Assays
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Electron microscopy
pirfenidone
JM 3100
Electron Microscopy
Apoptosis
Staining and Labeling
Proteins
Caveolae
Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins
Confocal microscopy
Spectrophotometry
Encapsulation

Keywords

  • AMD3100
  • Liposome
  • Liver fibrosis
  • Pirfenidone

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomaterials
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry

Cite this

CXCR4-targeted liposomal mediated co-delivery of pirfenidone and AMD3100 for the treatment of TGFΒ-induced HSC-T6 cells activation. / Ullah, Aftab; Wang, Kaikai; Wu, Pengkai; Oupicky, David; Sun, Minjie.

In: International journal of nanomedicine, Vol. 14, 01.01.2019, p. 2927-2944.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "Background: Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease associated with an excessive accumulation of extracellualr matrix (ECM) proteins which ultimately lead to cirrohosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Purpose: Liver fibrosis therapies that use combination approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways have proven higher efficacies. This study aimed at optimizing and characterizing the co-encapsulation of pirfenidone (PF) and AMD3100 (AMD) into CXCR4-targeted combination liposomes (CTC liposome) for CXCR4 targeting, and the inhibition of major molecular culprits ie α-SMA, CXCR4, TGFΒ, and P-p38 involved in liver fibrosis in-vitro. Methods: The CTC liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. The concentration of encapsulated AMD and PF was measured by HPLC and UV spectrophotometry, respectively. Tramsmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the liposomal morphology. The CXCR4 targeting ability was determined by CXCR4 redistribution assay. Confocal microscopy and flowcytometry were used to determine the CXCR4 mediated cell uptake. The apoptosis inducing and protein downreguating ability of CTC liposomes were determined by apoptosis assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Invivo biodistribution and Hoechst staining were used to confirm the feasibility of CTC liposome for the in-vivo applications and drug targeted accumulation, respectively. Results: The TEM studies revealed that CTC liposomes were spherical in shape. The cumulative release of AMD and PF from CTC liposome was 67{\%} and 84{\%}, respectively, at 48 h. Compared to the free drug counterparts, encapsulated drugs displayed higher cell viability. The CXCR4 redistribution assay confirmed the CXCR4 targeting and antagonistic ability of CTC liposomes. The CTC liposomes were internalized more effectively via caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways. CTC liposomes displayed aggressive apoptosis (87.3{\%}) in TGFΒ-induced activated HSC-T6 cells suggesting a propensity to fibrosis regression. Also, CTC liposomes significantly reduced α-SMA (65{\%}), CXCR4 (77{\%}), TGFΒ (89{\%}), and P-p38 (66{\%}) expressions, better than free drugs. CTC@IR780 liposomes (CTC liposomes incorporating IR780 dye) were more accumulated in fibrotic livers compared to free IR780, as judged by in-vivo imaging, biodistribution analysis, and Hoechst staining. These findings suggest that this simple and stable CTC liposomal system holds a great promise for the treatment and prevention of liver fibrosis.",
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AU - Oupicky, David

AU - Sun, Minjie

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N2 - Background: Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease associated with an excessive accumulation of extracellualr matrix (ECM) proteins which ultimately lead to cirrohosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Purpose: Liver fibrosis therapies that use combination approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways have proven higher efficacies. This study aimed at optimizing and characterizing the co-encapsulation of pirfenidone (PF) and AMD3100 (AMD) into CXCR4-targeted combination liposomes (CTC liposome) for CXCR4 targeting, and the inhibition of major molecular culprits ie α-SMA, CXCR4, TGFΒ, and P-p38 involved in liver fibrosis in-vitro. Methods: The CTC liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. The concentration of encapsulated AMD and PF was measured by HPLC and UV spectrophotometry, respectively. Tramsmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the liposomal morphology. The CXCR4 targeting ability was determined by CXCR4 redistribution assay. Confocal microscopy and flowcytometry were used to determine the CXCR4 mediated cell uptake. The apoptosis inducing and protein downreguating ability of CTC liposomes were determined by apoptosis assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Invivo biodistribution and Hoechst staining were used to confirm the feasibility of CTC liposome for the in-vivo applications and drug targeted accumulation, respectively. Results: The TEM studies revealed that CTC liposomes were spherical in shape. The cumulative release of AMD and PF from CTC liposome was 67% and 84%, respectively, at 48 h. Compared to the free drug counterparts, encapsulated drugs displayed higher cell viability. The CXCR4 redistribution assay confirmed the CXCR4 targeting and antagonistic ability of CTC liposomes. The CTC liposomes were internalized more effectively via caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways. CTC liposomes displayed aggressive apoptosis (87.3%) in TGFΒ-induced activated HSC-T6 cells suggesting a propensity to fibrosis regression. Also, CTC liposomes significantly reduced α-SMA (65%), CXCR4 (77%), TGFΒ (89%), and P-p38 (66%) expressions, better than free drugs. CTC@IR780 liposomes (CTC liposomes incorporating IR780 dye) were more accumulated in fibrotic livers compared to free IR780, as judged by in-vivo imaging, biodistribution analysis, and Hoechst staining. These findings suggest that this simple and stable CTC liposomal system holds a great promise for the treatment and prevention of liver fibrosis.

AB - Background: Liver fibrosis is a chronic liver disease associated with an excessive accumulation of extracellualr matrix (ECM) proteins which ultimately lead to cirrohosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Purpose: Liver fibrosis therapies that use combination approaches with the ability to affect multiple disease pathways have proven higher efficacies. This study aimed at optimizing and characterizing the co-encapsulation of pirfenidone (PF) and AMD3100 (AMD) into CXCR4-targeted combination liposomes (CTC liposome) for CXCR4 targeting, and the inhibition of major molecular culprits ie α-SMA, CXCR4, TGFΒ, and P-p38 involved in liver fibrosis in-vitro. Methods: The CTC liposomes were prepared using the thin-film hydration method. The concentration of encapsulated AMD and PF was measured by HPLC and UV spectrophotometry, respectively. Tramsmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to determine the liposomal morphology. The CXCR4 targeting ability was determined by CXCR4 redistribution assay. Confocal microscopy and flowcytometry were used to determine the CXCR4 mediated cell uptake. The apoptosis inducing and protein downreguating ability of CTC liposomes were determined by apoptosis assay and western blot analysis, respectively. Invivo biodistribution and Hoechst staining were used to confirm the feasibility of CTC liposome for the in-vivo applications and drug targeted accumulation, respectively. Results: The TEM studies revealed that CTC liposomes were spherical in shape. The cumulative release of AMD and PF from CTC liposome was 67% and 84%, respectively, at 48 h. Compared to the free drug counterparts, encapsulated drugs displayed higher cell viability. The CXCR4 redistribution assay confirmed the CXCR4 targeting and antagonistic ability of CTC liposomes. The CTC liposomes were internalized more effectively via caveolae-mediated endocytic pathways. CTC liposomes displayed aggressive apoptosis (87.3%) in TGFΒ-induced activated HSC-T6 cells suggesting a propensity to fibrosis regression. Also, CTC liposomes significantly reduced α-SMA (65%), CXCR4 (77%), TGFΒ (89%), and P-p38 (66%) expressions, better than free drugs. CTC@IR780 liposomes (CTC liposomes incorporating IR780 dye) were more accumulated in fibrotic livers compared to free IR780, as judged by in-vivo imaging, biodistribution analysis, and Hoechst staining. These findings suggest that this simple and stable CTC liposomal system holds a great promise for the treatment and prevention of liver fibrosis.

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