Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometresized probes in chemistry and biology

Stanislaus S. Wong, Ernesto Joselevich, Adam T. Woolley, Chin Li Cheung, Charles M. Lieber

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1355 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Carbon nanotubes combine a range of properties that make them well suited for use as probe tips in applications such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their high aspect ratio, for example, opens up the possibility of probing the deep crevices that occur in microelectronic circuits, and the small effective radius of nanotube tips significantly improves the lateral resolution beyond what can be achieved using commercial silicon tips. Another characteristic feature of nanotubes is their ability to buckle elastically, which makes them very robust while limiting the maximum force that is applied to delicate organic and biological samples. Earlier investigations into the performance of nanotubes as scanning probe microscopy tips have focused on topographical imaging, but a potentially more significant issue is the question of whether nanotubes can be modified to create probes that can sense and manipulate matter at the molecular level. Here we demonstrate that nanotube tips with the capability of chemical and biological discrimination can be created with acidic functionality and by coupling basic or hydrophobic functionalities or biomolecular probes to the carboxyl groups that are present at the open tip ends. We have used these modified nanotubes as AFM tips to titrate the acid and base groups, to image patterned samples based on molecular interactions, and to measure the binding force between single protein-ligand pairs. As carboxyl groups are readily derivatized by a variety of reactions, the preparation of a wide range of functionalized nanotube tips should be possible, thus creating molecular probes with potential applications in many areas of chemistry and biology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)52-55
Number of pages4
JournalNature
Volume394
Issue number6688
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2 1998

Fingerprint

Nanotubes
Atomic Force Microscopy
Scanning Probe Microscopy
Molecular Probes
Carbon Nanotubes
Silicon
Ligands
Acids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Wong, S. S., Joselevich, E., Woolley, A. T., Cheung, C. L., & Lieber, C. M. (1998). Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometresized probes in chemistry and biology. Nature, 394(6688), 52-55. https://doi.org/10.1038/27873

Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometresized probes in chemistry and biology. / Wong, Stanislaus S.; Joselevich, Ernesto; Woolley, Adam T.; Cheung, Chin Li; Lieber, Charles M.

In: Nature, Vol. 394, No. 6688, 02.07.1998, p. 52-55.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Wong, SS, Joselevich, E, Woolley, AT, Cheung, CL & Lieber, CM 1998, 'Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometresized probes in chemistry and biology', Nature, vol. 394, no. 6688, pp. 52-55. https://doi.org/10.1038/27873
Wong, Stanislaus S. ; Joselevich, Ernesto ; Woolley, Adam T. ; Cheung, Chin Li ; Lieber, Charles M. / Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometresized probes in chemistry and biology. In: Nature. 1998 ; Vol. 394, No. 6688. pp. 52-55.
@article{782761e4b992484c8553603c63ae02d7,
title = "Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometresized probes in chemistry and biology",
abstract = "Carbon nanotubes combine a range of properties that make them well suited for use as probe tips in applications such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their high aspect ratio, for example, opens up the possibility of probing the deep crevices that occur in microelectronic circuits, and the small effective radius of nanotube tips significantly improves the lateral resolution beyond what can be achieved using commercial silicon tips. Another characteristic feature of nanotubes is their ability to buckle elastically, which makes them very robust while limiting the maximum force that is applied to delicate organic and biological samples. Earlier investigations into the performance of nanotubes as scanning probe microscopy tips have focused on topographical imaging, but a potentially more significant issue is the question of whether nanotubes can be modified to create probes that can sense and manipulate matter at the molecular level. Here we demonstrate that nanotube tips with the capability of chemical and biological discrimination can be created with acidic functionality and by coupling basic or hydrophobic functionalities or biomolecular probes to the carboxyl groups that are present at the open tip ends. We have used these modified nanotubes as AFM tips to titrate the acid and base groups, to image patterned samples based on molecular interactions, and to measure the binding force between single protein-ligand pairs. As carboxyl groups are readily derivatized by a variety of reactions, the preparation of a wide range of functionalized nanotube tips should be possible, thus creating molecular probes with potential applications in many areas of chemistry and biology.",
author = "Wong, {Stanislaus S.} and Ernesto Joselevich and Woolley, {Adam T.} and Cheung, {Chin Li} and Lieber, {Charles M.}",
year = "1998",
month = "7",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1038/27873",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "394",
pages = "52--55",
journal = "Nature",
issn = "0028-0836",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "6688",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Covalently functionalized nanotubes as nanometresized probes in chemistry and biology

AU - Wong, Stanislaus S.

AU - Joselevich, Ernesto

AU - Woolley, Adam T.

AU - Cheung, Chin Li

AU - Lieber, Charles M.

PY - 1998/7/2

Y1 - 1998/7/2

N2 - Carbon nanotubes combine a range of properties that make them well suited for use as probe tips in applications such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their high aspect ratio, for example, opens up the possibility of probing the deep crevices that occur in microelectronic circuits, and the small effective radius of nanotube tips significantly improves the lateral resolution beyond what can be achieved using commercial silicon tips. Another characteristic feature of nanotubes is their ability to buckle elastically, which makes them very robust while limiting the maximum force that is applied to delicate organic and biological samples. Earlier investigations into the performance of nanotubes as scanning probe microscopy tips have focused on topographical imaging, but a potentially more significant issue is the question of whether nanotubes can be modified to create probes that can sense and manipulate matter at the molecular level. Here we demonstrate that nanotube tips with the capability of chemical and biological discrimination can be created with acidic functionality and by coupling basic or hydrophobic functionalities or biomolecular probes to the carboxyl groups that are present at the open tip ends. We have used these modified nanotubes as AFM tips to titrate the acid and base groups, to image patterned samples based on molecular interactions, and to measure the binding force between single protein-ligand pairs. As carboxyl groups are readily derivatized by a variety of reactions, the preparation of a wide range of functionalized nanotube tips should be possible, thus creating molecular probes with potential applications in many areas of chemistry and biology.

AB - Carbon nanotubes combine a range of properties that make them well suited for use as probe tips in applications such as atomic force microscopy (AFM). Their high aspect ratio, for example, opens up the possibility of probing the deep crevices that occur in microelectronic circuits, and the small effective radius of nanotube tips significantly improves the lateral resolution beyond what can be achieved using commercial silicon tips. Another characteristic feature of nanotubes is their ability to buckle elastically, which makes them very robust while limiting the maximum force that is applied to delicate organic and biological samples. Earlier investigations into the performance of nanotubes as scanning probe microscopy tips have focused on topographical imaging, but a potentially more significant issue is the question of whether nanotubes can be modified to create probes that can sense and manipulate matter at the molecular level. Here we demonstrate that nanotube tips with the capability of chemical and biological discrimination can be created with acidic functionality and by coupling basic or hydrophobic functionalities or biomolecular probes to the carboxyl groups that are present at the open tip ends. We have used these modified nanotubes as AFM tips to titrate the acid and base groups, to image patterned samples based on molecular interactions, and to measure the binding force between single protein-ligand pairs. As carboxyl groups are readily derivatized by a variety of reactions, the preparation of a wide range of functionalized nanotube tips should be possible, thus creating molecular probes with potential applications in many areas of chemistry and biology.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0032474758&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0032474758&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/27873

DO - 10.1038/27873

M3 - Article

C2 - 9665127

AN - SCOPUS:0032474758

VL - 394

SP - 52

EP - 55

JO - Nature

JF - Nature

SN - 0028-0836

IS - 6688

ER -