Counterattitudinal Advocacy as a Means of Enhancing Instructional Effectiveness: How to Teach Students What They Do Not Want to Know

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18 Scopus citations


This study, was designed to determine the effectiveness of counterattitudinal advocacy in overcoming beginning students' erroneous beliefs about psychological phenomena. Introductory psychology students (N = 71) either wrote an essay (counterattitudinal advocacy) or read an essay supporting a scientifically acceptable position contrary to one of their beliefs. Writing a counterattitudinal essay was more effective in changing students' beliefs than either reading such an essay or learning about the topic through Standard pedagogical techniques. The method of delivering instructional materials (lecture vs. text vs. both lecture and text) made no significant difference in the elimination of erroneous beliefs.


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Psychology(all)

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