Correlation between histidine operon expression and guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate levels during amino acid downshift in stringent and relaxed strains of Salmonella typhimurium.

R. F. Shand, P. H. Blum, R. D. Mueller, D. L. Riggs, S. W. Artz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Scopus citations


We have analyzed the correlation of attenuator-independent expression of the Salmonella typhimurium histidine operon in vivo with levels of the "alarmone" guanosine 5'-diphosphate 3'-diphosphate. Amino acid downshift caused by serine hydroxamate addition increased his expression in a relA+ strain and decreased his expression in a relA mutant, whereas levels of guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate varied in parallel with the changes in his expression in the two strains. In several experiments, overall variations in his expression ranged from 20- to 60-fold after downshift. The mild downshift allowed growth of the cultures to continue at near-preshift rates. Serine hydroxamate addition was also used to analyze the effect of amino acid downshift on induced expression of wild-type and mutant lac promoters. There was a 12-fold difference in lac expression when a relA+-relA1 pair was subjected to mild starvation but only a 3-fold difference when the strains carried the lacZpL8UV5 promoter mutation. These results suggest that guanosine 5'-diphosphate-3'-diphosphate stimulates gene expression in vivo at the level of transcription initiation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)737-743
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of bacteriology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Feb 1989


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology

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