Corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets for growing-finishing pigs

A cooperative study

G. L. Cromwell, M. J. Azain, O. Adeola, S. K. Baidoo, S. D. Carter, T. D. Crenshaw, S. W. Kim, D. C. Mahan, Phillip S Miller, M. C. Shannon

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

An experiment involving 560 crossbred pigs (28 replications of 4 to 6 pigs per pen) was conducted at 9 research stations to assess the effects of dietary concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig performance and belly firmness. Fortified corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 15, 30, or 45% DDGS were fed in 3 phases from 33 to 121 kg of BW. A common source of DDGS containing 90.1% DM, 26.3% CP, 0.96% Lys, 0.18% Trp, 9.4% crude fat, 34.6% NDF, 0.03% Ca, and 0.86% P was used at each station. Diets were formulated to contain 0.83, 0.70, and 0.58% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys during the 3 phases with diets changed at 60 and 91 kg of BW, respectively. The DDGS replaced corn and soybean meal, and up to 0.172% Lys and 0.041% Trp were added to maintain constant SID concentrations of Lys and Trp in each phase. At each station, 2 pigs from each pen in 2 replications were killed and a midline backfat core was obtained for fatty acid analysis and iodine value. In most instances, there were differences among stations (P < 0.01), but the station × treatment interactions were few. Body weight gain was linearly reduced in pigs fed the greater amounts of DDGS (0 to 45%) during phase I (950, 964, 921, and 920 g/d; P < 0.01) and over the entire experimental period (944, 953, 924, and 915 g/d; P = 0.03), but ADFI (2.73, 2.76, 2.68, and 2.70 kg) and G:F (347, 347, 345, and 341 g/kg) were not affected (P = 0.15 and P = 0.33, respectively) during the entire test. Backfat depth was reduced (linear, P < 0.02) by increasing amounts of DDGS (22.5, 22.7, 21.4, and 21.6 mm), but LM area (47.4, 47.4, 46.1, and 45.4 cm2) was not affected (P = 0.16) by treatments. Estimated carcass fat-free lean was 51.9, 52.2, 52.4, and 52.1% for 0 to 45% DDGS, respectively (linear, P = 0.06). Flex measures obtained at 6 stations indicated less firm bellies as dietary DDGS increased (lateral flex: 11.9, 8.6, 8.4, and 6.6 cm; linear, P < 0.001; vertical flex: 26.1, 27.4, 28.2, and 28.7 cm; linear, P < 0.003). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations in subcutaneous fat decreased linearly (P < 0.001) and PUFA concentrations increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing DDGS in the diet. Iodine values in inner (61.1, 68.2, 74.7, and 82.2) and outer (67.9, 73.6, 79.6, and 85.8) backfat increased linearly (P < 0.001) as DDGS in the diet increased. In this study, feeding diets with 30 or 45% DDGS did not have major effects on growth performance, but resulted in softer bellies. Regression analysis indicated that iodine values increased 4.3 units for every 10 percentage unit inclusion of DDGS in the diet.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2801-2811
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of animal science
Volume89
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2011
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

distillers grains
cooperatives
Zea mays
finishing
Swine
Diet
swine
corn
diet
Iodine
iodine value
Soybeans
backfat
Meals
Fatty Acids
Fats
Monounsaturated Fatty Acids
Subcutaneous Fat
soybean meal
Weight Gain

Keywords

  • Belly firmness
  • Carcass
  • Distillers grain
  • Fatty acid
  • Iodine value
  • Pig

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Genetics

Cite this

Cromwell, G. L., Azain, M. J., Adeola, O., Baidoo, S. K., Carter, S. D., Crenshaw, T. D., ... Shannon, M. C. (2011). Corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets for growing-finishing pigs: A cooperative study. Journal of animal science, 89(9), 2801-2811. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3704

Corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets for growing-finishing pigs : A cooperative study. / Cromwell, G. L.; Azain, M. J.; Adeola, O.; Baidoo, S. K.; Carter, S. D.; Crenshaw, T. D.; Kim, S. W.; Mahan, D. C.; Miller, Phillip S; Shannon, M. C.

In: Journal of animal science, Vol. 89, No. 9, 01.09.2011, p. 2801-2811.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Cromwell, GL, Azain, MJ, Adeola, O, Baidoo, SK, Carter, SD, Crenshaw, TD, Kim, SW, Mahan, DC, Miller, PS & Shannon, MC 2011, 'Corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets for growing-finishing pigs: A cooperative study', Journal of animal science, vol. 89, no. 9, pp. 2801-2811. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-3704
Cromwell, G. L. ; Azain, M. J. ; Adeola, O. ; Baidoo, S. K. ; Carter, S. D. ; Crenshaw, T. D. ; Kim, S. W. ; Mahan, D. C. ; Miller, Phillip S ; Shannon, M. C. / Corn distillers dried grains with solubles in diets for growing-finishing pigs : A cooperative study. In: Journal of animal science. 2011 ; Vol. 89, No. 9. pp. 2801-2811.
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abstract = "An experiment involving 560 crossbred pigs (28 replications of 4 to 6 pigs per pen) was conducted at 9 research stations to assess the effects of dietary concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig performance and belly firmness. Fortified corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 15, 30, or 45{\%} DDGS were fed in 3 phases from 33 to 121 kg of BW. A common source of DDGS containing 90.1{\%} DM, 26.3{\%} CP, 0.96{\%} Lys, 0.18{\%} Trp, 9.4{\%} crude fat, 34.6{\%} NDF, 0.03{\%} Ca, and 0.86{\%} P was used at each station. Diets were formulated to contain 0.83, 0.70, and 0.58{\%} standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys during the 3 phases with diets changed at 60 and 91 kg of BW, respectively. The DDGS replaced corn and soybean meal, and up to 0.172{\%} Lys and 0.041{\%} Trp were added to maintain constant SID concentrations of Lys and Trp in each phase. At each station, 2 pigs from each pen in 2 replications were killed and a midline backfat core was obtained for fatty acid analysis and iodine value. In most instances, there were differences among stations (P < 0.01), but the station × treatment interactions were few. Body weight gain was linearly reduced in pigs fed the greater amounts of DDGS (0 to 45{\%}) during phase I (950, 964, 921, and 920 g/d; P < 0.01) and over the entire experimental period (944, 953, 924, and 915 g/d; P = 0.03), but ADFI (2.73, 2.76, 2.68, and 2.70 kg) and G:F (347, 347, 345, and 341 g/kg) were not affected (P = 0.15 and P = 0.33, respectively) during the entire test. Backfat depth was reduced (linear, P < 0.02) by increasing amounts of DDGS (22.5, 22.7, 21.4, and 21.6 mm), but LM area (47.4, 47.4, 46.1, and 45.4 cm2) was not affected (P = 0.16) by treatments. Estimated carcass fat-free lean was 51.9, 52.2, 52.4, and 52.1{\%} for 0 to 45{\%} DDGS, respectively (linear, P = 0.06). Flex measures obtained at 6 stations indicated less firm bellies as dietary DDGS increased (lateral flex: 11.9, 8.6, 8.4, and 6.6 cm; linear, P < 0.001; vertical flex: 26.1, 27.4, 28.2, and 28.7 cm; linear, P < 0.003). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations in subcutaneous fat decreased linearly (P < 0.001) and PUFA concentrations increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing DDGS in the diet. Iodine values in inner (61.1, 68.2, 74.7, and 82.2) and outer (67.9, 73.6, 79.6, and 85.8) backfat increased linearly (P < 0.001) as DDGS in the diet increased. In this study, feeding diets with 30 or 45{\%} DDGS did not have major effects on growth performance, but resulted in softer bellies. Regression analysis indicated that iodine values increased 4.3 units for every 10 percentage unit inclusion of DDGS in the diet.",
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T2 - A cooperative study

AU - Cromwell, G. L.

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AU - Baidoo, S. K.

AU - Carter, S. D.

AU - Crenshaw, T. D.

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N2 - An experiment involving 560 crossbred pigs (28 replications of 4 to 6 pigs per pen) was conducted at 9 research stations to assess the effects of dietary concentrations of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig performance and belly firmness. Fortified corn-soybean meal diets containing 0, 15, 30, or 45% DDGS were fed in 3 phases from 33 to 121 kg of BW. A common source of DDGS containing 90.1% DM, 26.3% CP, 0.96% Lys, 0.18% Trp, 9.4% crude fat, 34.6% NDF, 0.03% Ca, and 0.86% P was used at each station. Diets were formulated to contain 0.83, 0.70, and 0.58% standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys during the 3 phases with diets changed at 60 and 91 kg of BW, respectively. The DDGS replaced corn and soybean meal, and up to 0.172% Lys and 0.041% Trp were added to maintain constant SID concentrations of Lys and Trp in each phase. At each station, 2 pigs from each pen in 2 replications were killed and a midline backfat core was obtained for fatty acid analysis and iodine value. In most instances, there were differences among stations (P < 0.01), but the station × treatment interactions were few. Body weight gain was linearly reduced in pigs fed the greater amounts of DDGS (0 to 45%) during phase I (950, 964, 921, and 920 g/d; P < 0.01) and over the entire experimental period (944, 953, 924, and 915 g/d; P = 0.03), but ADFI (2.73, 2.76, 2.68, and 2.70 kg) and G:F (347, 347, 345, and 341 g/kg) were not affected (P = 0.15 and P = 0.33, respectively) during the entire test. Backfat depth was reduced (linear, P < 0.02) by increasing amounts of DDGS (22.5, 22.7, 21.4, and 21.6 mm), but LM area (47.4, 47.4, 46.1, and 45.4 cm2) was not affected (P = 0.16) by treatments. Estimated carcass fat-free lean was 51.9, 52.2, 52.4, and 52.1% for 0 to 45% DDGS, respectively (linear, P = 0.06). Flex measures obtained at 6 stations indicated less firm bellies as dietary DDGS increased (lateral flex: 11.9, 8.6, 8.4, and 6.6 cm; linear, P < 0.001; vertical flex: 26.1, 27.4, 28.2, and 28.7 cm; linear, P < 0.003). Saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid concentrations in subcutaneous fat decreased linearly (P < 0.001) and PUFA concentrations increased linearly (P < 0.001) with increasing DDGS in the diet. Iodine values in inner (61.1, 68.2, 74.7, and 82.2) and outer (67.9, 73.6, 79.6, and 85.8) backfat increased linearly (P < 0.001) as DDGS in the diet increased. In this study, feeding diets with 30 or 45% DDGS did not have major effects on growth performance, but resulted in softer bellies. Regression analysis indicated that iodine values increased 4.3 units for every 10 percentage unit inclusion of DDGS in the diet.

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KW - Fatty acid

KW - Iodine value

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