Conventional dose hypertonic saline provides optimal gut protection and limits remote organ injury after gut ischemia reperfusion

Ernest A. Gonzalez, Rosemary A. Kozar, James W. Suliburk, Norman W. Weisbrodt, David W. Mercer, Frederick A. Moore

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

29 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hypertonic saline (HS) resuscitation prevents neutrophil mediated injury after shock. The optimal dose is not known, but appears as a result of osmotic stress. We hypothesized that a dose dependent effect exists related to increasing tonicity and that the optimal gut protective dose would provide better protection against remote organ injury than large volume isotonic crystalloids. METHODS: In experiment 1, rats were assigned to controls (sham/no resuscitation, sham/4 mL/kg 7.5% HS, superior mesenteric artery occlusion [SMAO]/no resuscitation), SMAO/equal volume (4 mL/kg 0.9% NS, 4 mL/kg 2.5% HS, 4 mL/kg 5% HS, 4 mL/kg 7.5% HS and 4 mL/kg 10% HS) or SMAO/equal sodium (33 mL/kg 0.9% NS, 12 mL/kg 2.5% HS, 6 mL/kg 5% HS, 4 mL/kg 7.5% HS, and 3 mL/kg 10% HS). In experiment 2, rats were assigned to the same control groups, and to either SMAO/NS (33 mL/kg 0.9% NS, equal salt load) or SMAO/HS (4 mL/kg 7.5% HS). The SMAO was clamped for 60 minutes and boluses given 5 minutes before clamp removal. After 6 hours of reperfusion, ileum and lungs were harvested for analysis of histologic injury, myeloperoxidase (MPO) as an index of neutrophil mediated injury, and serum ALT and AST drawn as markers of liver injury. RESULTS: In experiment 1, equal volume and equal sodium decreased injury and inflammation with increasing tonicity in a dose dependent fashion, with the optimal effect seen at 7.5%. In experiment 2, NS resuscitation resulted in minimal improvement of SMAO-induced lung injury and inflammation or increases in serum ALT and AST whereas HS resuscitation significantly decreased these parameters. CONCLUSION: The protective effect of HS is related to increased tonicity. While NS had little effect on SMAO-induced remote organ injury, optimal dose HS resuscitation was quite protective. This supports the growing evidence that HS protection may be because of its gut protective effects.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)66-73
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care
Volume61
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2006

Fingerprint

Superior Mesenteric Artery
Reperfusion
Ischemia
Resuscitation
Wounds and Injuries
Neutrophils
Sodium
Osmotic Pressure
Lung Injury
Serum
Ileum
Peroxidase
Shock
Pneumonia
Salts
Inflammation
Lung
Control Groups
Liver

Keywords

  • Hypertonic saline
  • Ischemia/reperfusion
  • Organ injury

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

Cite this

Conventional dose hypertonic saline provides optimal gut protection and limits remote organ injury after gut ischemia reperfusion. / Gonzalez, Ernest A.; Kozar, Rosemary A.; Suliburk, James W.; Weisbrodt, Norman W.; Mercer, David W.; Moore, Frederick A.

In: Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care, Vol. 61, No. 1, 01.07.2006, p. 66-73.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Gonzalez, Ernest A. ; Kozar, Rosemary A. ; Suliburk, James W. ; Weisbrodt, Norman W. ; Mercer, David W. ; Moore, Frederick A. / Conventional dose hypertonic saline provides optimal gut protection and limits remote organ injury after gut ischemia reperfusion. In: Journal of Trauma - Injury, Infection and Critical Care. 2006 ; Vol. 61, No. 1. pp. 66-73.
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