Controlled and behaviorally relevant levels of oral ethanol intake in rhesus macaques using a flavorant-fade procedure

Simon N. Katner, Claudia T. Flynn, Stefani N. Von Huben, Amber J. Kirsten, Sophia A. Davis, Christopher C. Lay, Maury Cole, Amanda J. Roberts, Howard S Fox, Michael A. Taffe

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

22 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Flavorant-fading procedures can initiate and maintain oral ethanol intake in rodents. The present study developed a similar procedure to achieve controlled and behaviorally relevant levels of ethanol intake in monkeys. Methods: Male rhesus macaques (N = 13) were initially given the opportunity to consume 0.5 g/kg of a 1% (w/v) ethanol plus 4% (w/v) Tang solution in 1-hr limited-access sessions without the requirement of an operant response. Once consumption was stable at a particular concentration (%) and/or amount (g/kg), animals were given access to higher concentrations and/or amounts of ethanol. Animals were tested on a bimanual motor skill (BMS) task 20 and 90 min after consumption to assess behavioral impairment. Blood alcohol levels (BALS) were assessed after a session in which animals had the opportunity to consume up to 3.0 g/kg of 6% (w/v) ethanol. Results: The gradual fading up of higher concentrations and amounts of ethanol resulted in controlled and robust levels (>2.0 g/kg) of ethanol intake in half of the subjects. Increasing the concentration of the sweetener from 4 to 6% (w/v) was effective in initiating consumption in three animals. Two monkeys required the additional step of presenting the increased-sweetener solutions after a meal (postprandial consumption) to initiate significant ethanol intake. Animals were significantly impaired on the BMS task after consumption of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g/kg of ethanol. Individual consumption ranging from 0.8 to 3.0 g/kg of ethanol produced BALs of 18 to 269 mg/dl. Conclusions: The flavorant-fading procedure was effective in producing behaviorally relevant levels of ethanol consumption in rhesus macaques. This model facilitated a randomized-dose procedure to determine the behavioral effects of 0.5 to 3.0 g/kg of ethanol. This procedure therefore is of significant utility in determining behavioral or physiologic effects of specific doses of consumed ethanol in monkeys.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)873-883
Number of pages11
JournalAlcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research
Volume28
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004

Fingerprint

Macaca mulatta
Ethanol
Animals
Haplorhini
Sweetening Agents
Motor Skills
Dimercaprol
Meals
Rodentia
Blood
Alcohols

Keywords

  • Alcohol
  • Ethanol
  • Nonhuman primate
  • Rhesus macaque
  • Self-administration

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Toxicology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health

Cite this

Controlled and behaviorally relevant levels of oral ethanol intake in rhesus macaques using a flavorant-fade procedure. / Katner, Simon N.; Flynn, Claudia T.; Von Huben, Stefani N.; Kirsten, Amber J.; Davis, Sophia A.; Lay, Christopher C.; Cole, Maury; Roberts, Amanda J.; Fox, Howard S; Taffe, Michael A.

In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, Vol. 28, No. 6, 01.01.2004, p. 873-883.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Katner, Simon N. ; Flynn, Claudia T. ; Von Huben, Stefani N. ; Kirsten, Amber J. ; Davis, Sophia A. ; Lay, Christopher C. ; Cole, Maury ; Roberts, Amanda J. ; Fox, Howard S ; Taffe, Michael A. / Controlled and behaviorally relevant levels of oral ethanol intake in rhesus macaques using a flavorant-fade procedure. In: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research. 2004 ; Vol. 28, No. 6. pp. 873-883.
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AU - Flynn, Claudia T.

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AU - Kirsten, Amber J.

AU - Davis, Sophia A.

AU - Lay, Christopher C.

AU - Cole, Maury

AU - Roberts, Amanda J.

AU - Fox, Howard S

AU - Taffe, Michael A.

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N2 - Background: Flavorant-fading procedures can initiate and maintain oral ethanol intake in rodents. The present study developed a similar procedure to achieve controlled and behaviorally relevant levels of ethanol intake in monkeys. Methods: Male rhesus macaques (N = 13) were initially given the opportunity to consume 0.5 g/kg of a 1% (w/v) ethanol plus 4% (w/v) Tang solution in 1-hr limited-access sessions without the requirement of an operant response. Once consumption was stable at a particular concentration (%) and/or amount (g/kg), animals were given access to higher concentrations and/or amounts of ethanol. Animals were tested on a bimanual motor skill (BMS) task 20 and 90 min after consumption to assess behavioral impairment. Blood alcohol levels (BALS) were assessed after a session in which animals had the opportunity to consume up to 3.0 g/kg of 6% (w/v) ethanol. Results: The gradual fading up of higher concentrations and amounts of ethanol resulted in controlled and robust levels (>2.0 g/kg) of ethanol intake in half of the subjects. Increasing the concentration of the sweetener from 4 to 6% (w/v) was effective in initiating consumption in three animals. Two monkeys required the additional step of presenting the increased-sweetener solutions after a meal (postprandial consumption) to initiate significant ethanol intake. Animals were significantly impaired on the BMS task after consumption of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g/kg of ethanol. Individual consumption ranging from 0.8 to 3.0 g/kg of ethanol produced BALs of 18 to 269 mg/dl. Conclusions: The flavorant-fading procedure was effective in producing behaviorally relevant levels of ethanol consumption in rhesus macaques. This model facilitated a randomized-dose procedure to determine the behavioral effects of 0.5 to 3.0 g/kg of ethanol. This procedure therefore is of significant utility in determining behavioral or physiologic effects of specific doses of consumed ethanol in monkeys.

AB - Background: Flavorant-fading procedures can initiate and maintain oral ethanol intake in rodents. The present study developed a similar procedure to achieve controlled and behaviorally relevant levels of ethanol intake in monkeys. Methods: Male rhesus macaques (N = 13) were initially given the opportunity to consume 0.5 g/kg of a 1% (w/v) ethanol plus 4% (w/v) Tang solution in 1-hr limited-access sessions without the requirement of an operant response. Once consumption was stable at a particular concentration (%) and/or amount (g/kg), animals were given access to higher concentrations and/or amounts of ethanol. Animals were tested on a bimanual motor skill (BMS) task 20 and 90 min after consumption to assess behavioral impairment. Blood alcohol levels (BALS) were assessed after a session in which animals had the opportunity to consume up to 3.0 g/kg of 6% (w/v) ethanol. Results: The gradual fading up of higher concentrations and amounts of ethanol resulted in controlled and robust levels (>2.0 g/kg) of ethanol intake in half of the subjects. Increasing the concentration of the sweetener from 4 to 6% (w/v) was effective in initiating consumption in three animals. Two monkeys required the additional step of presenting the increased-sweetener solutions after a meal (postprandial consumption) to initiate significant ethanol intake. Animals were significantly impaired on the BMS task after consumption of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 g/kg of ethanol. Individual consumption ranging from 0.8 to 3.0 g/kg of ethanol produced BALs of 18 to 269 mg/dl. Conclusions: The flavorant-fading procedure was effective in producing behaviorally relevant levels of ethanol consumption in rhesus macaques. This model facilitated a randomized-dose procedure to determine the behavioral effects of 0.5 to 3.0 g/kg of ethanol. This procedure therefore is of significant utility in determining behavioral or physiologic effects of specific doses of consumed ethanol in monkeys.

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