We investigated the incidence and nature of integrated marketing communications (IMC) evident in the advertising of products over time and across product classifications for services versus physical goods. Our goal was to shed light on the use of IMC in practice vis-à-vis its theoretical relevance in the advertising and business literature. Using a framework by Nowak and Phelps (1994), we examined IMC utilization by service organizations and physical goods manufacturers at the tactical (advertisement) level over five time periods spanning 20 years. Results indicate that IMC is a reality among both services ads and physical goods ads, yet its incidence has not increased significantly over this time frame. Differences exist when product types are compared, although there appears to be much room for further and more enlightened adoption of IMC principles within advertising vehicles.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Business and International Management