Comparing state- Versus facility-level effects on crowding in U.S. correctional facilities

Benjamin Steiner, John Wooldredge

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated facilities in 45 states. Findings from cross-sectional models of prison crowding in 1995 and 2000, measured as a ratio of a facility's inmate population to its design capacity, revealed significant differences in levels of crowding based on costs, types of inmates held, and court orders (at the facility level), as well as sentencing policies and the annual number of drug arrests (at the state level). A longitudinal analysis also revealed that differences in crowding levels between 1995 and 2000 coincided with changes in whether facilities increased their design capacity and with rising costs of incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)259-290
Number of pages32
JournalCrime and Delinquency
Volume54
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2008

Fingerprint

Prisons
Costs and Cost Analysis
Empirical Research
correctional institution
Pharmaceutical Preparations
Population
costs
empirical research
drug

Keywords

  • Correctional facilities
  • Prison
  • Prison crowding
  • Sentencing policies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pathology and Forensic Medicine
  • Law

Cite this

Comparing state- Versus facility-level effects on crowding in U.S. correctional facilities. / Steiner, Benjamin; Wooldredge, John.

In: Crime and Delinquency, Vol. 54, No. 2, 01.04.2008, p. 259-290.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{5d52445ecf4d40458d338afbc91a5610,
title = "Comparing state- Versus facility-level effects on crowding in U.S. correctional facilities",
abstract = "The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated facilities in 45 states. Findings from cross-sectional models of prison crowding in 1995 and 2000, measured as a ratio of a facility's inmate population to its design capacity, revealed significant differences in levels of crowding based on costs, types of inmates held, and court orders (at the facility level), as well as sentencing policies and the annual number of drug arrests (at the state level). A longitudinal analysis also revealed that differences in crowding levels between 1995 and 2000 coincided with changes in whether facilities increased their design capacity and with rising costs of incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.",
keywords = "Correctional facilities, Prison, Prison crowding, Sentencing policies",
author = "Benjamin Steiner and John Wooldredge",
year = "2008",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1177/0011128706296963",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "54",
pages = "259--290",
journal = "Crime and Delinquency",
issn = "0011-1287",
publisher = "SAGE Publications Inc.",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Comparing state- Versus facility-level effects on crowding in U.S. correctional facilities

AU - Steiner, Benjamin

AU - Wooldredge, John

PY - 2008/4/1

Y1 - 2008/4/1

N2 - The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated facilities in 45 states. Findings from cross-sectional models of prison crowding in 1995 and 2000, measured as a ratio of a facility's inmate population to its design capacity, revealed significant differences in levels of crowding based on costs, types of inmates held, and court orders (at the facility level), as well as sentencing policies and the annual number of drug arrests (at the state level). A longitudinal analysis also revealed that differences in crowding levels between 1995 and 2000 coincided with changes in whether facilities increased their design capacity and with rising costs of incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.

AB - The literature on prison crowding underscores the potential importance of both state- and facility-level effects on crowding, although empirical research has not assessed these relative effects because of the sole focus on states as units of analysis. This article describes findings from bi-level analyses of crowding across 459 state-operated facilities in 45 states. Findings from cross-sectional models of prison crowding in 1995 and 2000, measured as a ratio of a facility's inmate population to its design capacity, revealed significant differences in levels of crowding based on costs, types of inmates held, and court orders (at the facility level), as well as sentencing policies and the annual number of drug arrests (at the state level). A longitudinal analysis also revealed that differences in crowding levels between 1995 and 2000 coincided with changes in whether facilities increased their design capacity and with rising costs of incarceration. The implications of these findings are discussed.

KW - Correctional facilities

KW - Prison

KW - Prison crowding

KW - Sentencing policies

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=40849086552&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=40849086552&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1177/0011128706296963

DO - 10.1177/0011128706296963

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:40849086552

VL - 54

SP - 259

EP - 290

JO - Crime and Delinquency

JF - Crime and Delinquency

SN - 0011-1287

IS - 2

ER -